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OPERANT CONDITIONING, A THEORY DEVELOPED BY B.F. SKINNER
Dating back to the 1800’s, many theories have developed in reference to Child Development. There have been theories that have become classics and those that continue to cause controversy. Doing research on these theories one of them really stood out to me and that is the one of B.F. Skinner. Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning. The main principles of operant conditioning, as defined by Skinner, are reinforcement, punishment, shaping, extinction, discrimination, and generalization.
Reinforcement is the key
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All three types of learning are part of behaviourism and look at measurable behaviour, rather than on cognitive and biological processes. Classical conditioning was the first learning theory, introduces in the 1900s followed by operant conditioning in the 1940s and the social learning theory after that.
Classical conditioning examines how a response is associated with a stimulus to cause conditioning looking at reflex / involuntary behaviours; operant conditioning involves learning through consequences – punishments and rewards in order to reinforce or decrease the occurrence of behaviour looking at deliberate / voluntary behaviour. Social learning theory accepts the role of
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Phobias and Addictions
February 16, 2014
Phobias and Addictions
In order to effectively examine any relationship between phobias, addictions and types of conditioning, it is important to first define and examine the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. According to the Free Dictionary (2014), classical conditioning is defined as “A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response.” Operant conditioning however is defined by Mirriam
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Phobias and Addictions
July 12, 2010
The purpose of this paper is to explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning, explore how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning, to distinguish between classical and operant conditioning, and to explain what extinction means and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning.
Phobias and Addictions are two very emotional learning difficulties. Phobias are defined as being an enduring, abnormal, and unfounded fear of a specific thing or situation that
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Phobias and Addictions Paper
As organic beings grow and adapt to our environments we are able to experience and learn many things. As soon as we are born we start to experiment with various mediums for pleasure and for survival. The ways in which we learn have been studied and reviewed many times by many social researchers. The two most prominent forms of learning styles are labeled as Classical and Operant Conditioning. Both Styles allow individuals to perform experiments in which we find out what works, why it works, and the possible changes and outcomes that may be applied as a result. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that already leads to a response is replaced by a different
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1. Define learning.
Learning is the process through which experience modifies behavior and understanding. Allows us to adapt to changing environments. Isn’t: Innate behavior, fixed action pattern or reflex.
Types of learning are Habituation, Classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning.
2. Define classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response. Describe how classical conditioning works by using the stimuli and responses in an example.
Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov.
3. Describe the processes of extinction and spontaneous recovery. Give an example of each.
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Organizational behavior is a study that learn about human behavior especially in the work environment to learn how that behavior have their impact within the organization for the goodness of the organization itself. In learning those behaviors, there are three type of theory that can be used in studying human behavior. They are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning. All of them are theories that learn and study how, why and when human behavior is made. Each of these theories has their own characteristic that differ one to another.
Classical conditioning is the first type of learning theory that learn human behavior by giving neutral stimuli before the expected
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Phobias and Addictions Paper
Week Two Assignment
PSY/300 – General Psychology
October 20, 2012
This is an essay concerning phobias and addictions. Four selected topics in four specific sections are what this paper is comprised of. These topic are:
1. How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning.
2. How addictions can be developed through operant conditioning.
3. Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning.
4. The meaning of "extinction" and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning.
How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning
"A phobia is a group of symptoms brought on by an object or
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¡ Ψ A school of Psychology founded by John Broadus Watson based on the idea that behaviors can be measured, trained and changed.
• OPERANT CONDITIONING ( Skinner)- utilizes reinforcement and punishment to create associations between behaviors and the consequences for those behaviors.
• CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ( Pavlov) - a process that involves creating an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one. Imagine a dog that salivates when it sees food. The food is the naturally occurring stimulus. If you started to ring a bell every time you presented the dog with food, an association would be formed between the food and
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feel afraid, this is became my conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response from my childhood experience is me having a terrible fear of spiders (Spielman, Dumper, Jenkins, Lacombe, & Lovett, 2014).
Operant conditioning is a form of learning that transpires through rewards and punishments for behavior. Behavioral consequence provides positive reinforcement or negative punishment to an animal or person after specific behavior is demonstrated. This reinforcement increases or decreases the likelihood of the behavioral response. In my experienced my learning could have occurred through operant conditioning if I would have kept my shoes on while playing outside, then my godparents decided to
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classical conditioning? Also what is extinction mean and how is it achieved in both conditions? These are the topics I will be answer and I will also be giving examples to each phobia and addiction that can happen through classical and operant conditioning.
“Classical conditioning is when an environmental stimulus leads to a learned response through pairing of an unconditioned stimulus” (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). For example Ivan Pavlov experiment with dogs. He did a study based on dogs and conditioning them to salivate by hearing a bell or a fork being pinged. Basically he would give dogs food after the bell rang. So after a couple tries he would then noticed that
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1. Operant Conditioning- this can be used in the workplace to encourage employees to do good work by rewarding them. For example: If an employee sells 10 cars for the month he gets a bonus and his picture on the wall for great sales but if another employee sells 2 cars for the month he gets a letter stating he is not meeting the job standards and if he continues to sell under the limit he may loose his job. That employee may quickly try to improve and sell more cars to be rewarded for his good works.
Observational Learning- this can be used in the workplace by helping people learn new things and apply new knowledge in their job roles. Paying attention to the steps someone is taking to
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Classical Conditioning: Association of Interest Led to Conditioning
May 21, 2012
Classical Conditioning: Association of Interest Led to Conditioning
Classical conditioning, synonymous with Pavlovian and respondent conditioning, is one of two types of learning (the other type of learning is operant conditioning) that provide a systematic approach to understanding human and nonhuman behavior and the potentiality of changing behavior. Learning significantly affects our way of living, functioning, and survival. Learning's predictability qualities assist in directing behavior. Kowalski & Westen (2009) affirm, "Learning is essentially about
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energy level one of the days that I visited. When asked about the high energy, the student was sated they were so energetic because they had gotten so much sleep. While there are a several different philosophies to describe why we sleep, scientists still do not have a definitive answer for exactly why we sleep. One of the major ideas suggests sleep is vital for repair and renewal of the mind and body – I know when I get enough sleep my body feels refreshed and I am ready to take on my day.
Lastly, I saw the kids doing classical and operant conditioning. Everyone has heard of Pavlov’s dogs and the accidental discovery of classical conditioning. The theory of classical conditioning is
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, and this school of thought continued to dominate for the next 50 years. In likely manner Psychologist B.F. Skinner furthered the behaviorist perspective with his concept of operant conditioning, which demonstrated the effect of punishment and reinforcement on behavior. (Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.)
While behaviorism eventually lost its hold on psychology, the basic principles of behavioral psychology are still widely in use today. Therapeutic techniques such as behavior analysis, behavioral modification and token economies are often utilized to help children learn new skills and overcome maladaptive behaviors
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Informal Learning Experience Using Different Learning Theories
University of Phoenix
October 15, 2014
Throughout the past century, several theories of learning have developed in relation to associative learning, which is the most basic learning that there is. There are two types of associative learning: classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Later on in the mid 1900’s, another more advanced mode of learning was studied, that being observational learning. This paper will present an informal learning experience and use the different theories to break down how this learning could have occurred.
Informal Learning Experience
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study human behavior using laboratory experiment. This is because the process is a scientific process. For instance, participants in the experiment take the memory tests under strict conditions.
Behaviorism assumes that all human behavior is acquired through the interaction of the environment. The symptoms are acquired through operant and classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a process that involves learning through association. The process is usually the cause of most phobias. Operant condition is a process that involves learning through punishment and reinforcement. Operant conditioning provides the possible explanation for certain abnormal behaviors such as eating disorders
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Case Studies Assignment
By: Shani McGee
Student ID: 21890987
Date: August 18, 2014
Essentials of Psychology SSC 130
Case study 1:
1. How did Cliff take advantage of principles of operant conditioning to modify his staff’s behavior?
Cliff took advantage of principles of operant conditionings modify his staff’s behavior by giving them small rewards when they were found working hard
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explained by those needs and values, since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.
Social learning theory is a revision of Sutherlands work. Social learning theory created by Akers and Burgess uses the concepts of modern behaviorism. Akers also believes that criminal behavior is a learned behavior. He argues that it is learned in a specific way, through operant conditioning and imitation of others. An example of operant conditioning is Pavlov’s dogs, where dogs were trained to salivate when they heard a bell ring. A behavioral response occurs by a prior stimulus. This form of behavior depends on instrumental conditioning; which is behavior that is learned as a
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According to B. F. Skinner (Science and Human Behavior, 1965), the Operant Conditioning is the process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur depending on its consequences. The schedule of reinforcement is an important component of learning process under the Operant Conditioning. I would like to apply this theory on the 2 dogs with same age in 2 different educating situation.
The 2 objects of study are Yorkshire Terrier in my cousin’s home and Toy Poodle in ours. The Yorkshire Terrier was educated under random schedule, while the Toy Poodle was educated under continuous reinforcement schedule.
While house training the Yorkshire Terrier and Toy Poodle, classical
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therefore, sets the way they think.
Another perspective is the view of Behaviorism. The Behavioral view believes that behaviors are classically conditioned through reinforcement, which comes through positive and negative reinforcement. There is also operant conditioning. Weiten (2011) states, “Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences” (p. 196). One could argue that Military training operates under the basic premise of behaviorism. When enlisting in the military, many people are excited about the prospect of serving their country. The strenuous hours of exercise serve the purpose of breaking down the physical and
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when she was staying with them. The little Marina discovered that the ways they caught animal is effective and useful and specific sounds conveyed specific meanings. Then, she stored the news skills and knowledge in her memory. During the time she lived in the forest with many wild animals, she imitated and applied what she had learnt. By observational learning, whether people will perform what they learnt is based on the motivation and the benefit. There were so many things and organisms that she never encountered before. Therefore, she was motivated to copy the monkeys’ behaviours in order to survive and take care of herself.
Operant conditioning is a learning process through which
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, pain management, and hypertension have all been successfully treated using this approach. Behavioral procedures are used in the fields of developmental disabilities, mental illness, education and special education, community psychology, clinical psychology, rehabilitation, business, self-management, sports psychology, health-related behaviors, and gerontology.
• 1950’s and 1960’s
o The behavioral approach had its origin in the 1950s and early 1960s, and it was a radical departure from the dominant psychoanalytic perspective.
o In the 1960s Albert Bandura developed social learning theory, which combined classical and operant conditioning with observational learning
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the machines to slowly lose production. Recently, Skinner’s work has started breakthroughs in teaching children to communicate effectively, autistic children especially.
B.F. Skinner was one of the most influential psychologists in American history. His experiments and research are still widely known today. Skinner died in 1990 of leukemia. Eight days before his death, Skinner spoke for the American Psychological Association convention to give his final critique of “cognitive science.” Skinner died battling the growing belief that cognitive processes—thoughts, perceptions, expectations—have a necessary place in psychology and also in the understanding of conditioning. Skinner categorized thoughts and emotions as behaviors that follow the laws that other behaviors do. However, there are many indications in recent research that cognitive processes are active in operant learning.
* Exploring Psychology in Modules
By: David G. Myers
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Theorists, for centuries, have developed their own conclusions regarding the ways in which people learn. B. F. Skinner was one of these people who endeavored to discover the psychology behind human behavior. Skinner formed the Operant Conditioning theory, which is defined as the modification of a player’s behaviour through punishment and reinforcement to achieve greater learning and development (Case & Bereiter, 1984). These punishments and reinforcements are either positive or negative as they result in an increase or decrease of a specific behaviour (Porter, 2007). Reinforcement is either the receiving of something pleasant (e.g. a chocolate bar) or the removal of something unpleasant
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naturally in tobacco, which is as addictive as heroin or cocaine (American Cancer Society,
2014). We can regard smoking as a kind of operant conditioning. When people have taken
in even just a small amount of this chemical, they can gain pleasant feelings from it. The
pleasant feeling acts as a positive reinforcer which encourages people to smoke more.
When my dad tries hard to quit smoking, the distasteful feeling from the lack of nicotine,
which act as a negative punishment, prohibits him to abstain from smoking. Thus, it is not
surprising that a smoker always find it hard to abandon this noxious habit, even they know
this obsession is detrimental.
I have also discovered a interesting
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Evaluate critically the veracity of their automatic thoughts and assumptions.
15 Develop the skills to notice, interrupt, and intervene at the level of automatic thoughts "on-line," as they happen.
15 What is behavior therapy?
15 Classical conditioning
15 Operant conditioning
15 Features common to cognitive and behavior therapy
15 Differences between cognitive and behavioral approaches
15 Research methods
15 Strengths and limitations of research design
15 Conclusion and implications
References: Your preliminary list of references should demonstrate familiarity with the professional literature as it relates to the thesis statement. Please be sure to list your
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as for behaving decently and respectfully with each other.
Moral development involves the development of thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do with their interactions with other people (Santrock 2012). In my class, a secondary High School Career and Technical Education class students are at an age that their values and morals should help to guide them in their behavior towards others and to respect the learning environment. Piaget suggest that students of this age show autonomous morality and are aware that rules are created by people and that the understand judgment of actions and consequences. In order to get to this stage, students have been exposed to many years of classical and operant conditioning to understand rewards and punishments from not following the rules or misbehaving.
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arduous assignment of long division problems. The arduous assignment is removed after the homework has been handed in and with the intention of strengthening the likelihood that future homework assignments will be forthcoming.
2. Concept Review:
Behaviorist B.F. Skinner developed the Reinforcement Theory considered to be one of the oldest theories of motivation as way to explain behavior and why we do what we do. The theory may also be known as behaviorism or operant conditioning. According to William N. Schoenfeld (1995) "’reinforcement’ was accorded the status of a "function of the stimulus," and was made
the visavis of operant learning in all its applications and variations: response
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department -> Christmas spirit -> purchasing gift
* Esp, low involvement situation (저관여 상품)
* High involvement – athletic shoes by teenagers
* Instrumental Conditioning : operant, conditioning
* Result -> positive
* Operation Performed after Behavior
* Positive Reinforcement : present positive consequences increase the probability of behavior
* Negative Reinforcement : Remove aversive consequences increase the probability of behavior
* Extinction : Neutral Consequences occur Decrease the probability of behavior
* Punishment : Present aversive consequences Decrease the probability of behavior
* Vicarious Learning
* Model Performs
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Operant conditioning for Marla was, “If I keep quiet and play along, I can do what I want to do.” This form of behavior guaranteed the response Marla wanted; a bit of peace and quiet. She stated that she was constantly worried that she would “loose it one day and go after her children, like mom did me. I am worried my husband is going to cheat on me, and I am worried that I am losing any bit of control I may have over my life.” I explained to her that she does have control of her life. I asked Marla if she was ready to hear what I felt was her greatest problem. She stated she was and I proceeded to give her my evaluation as well as suggestions.
I told Marla, that as long as she continued
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them to bring forth their automatic thoughts and core beliefs – something younger people aren’t developmentally capable of doing yet. An applicable therapy for children is behavioral therapy, because it involves altering their behaviors, which can be done through operant conditioning; bribing or giving rewards to children when they act on positive behaviors.
Limitations and Future Research
Specific therapies might not work the same for every population, like children and adults, yet therapeutic techniques can be taken and molded to fit the standards and characteristics of different populations. Even so, just because people of one culture are in some ways similar to one another, each
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therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs.
Operant conditioning, a term coined by B.F. Skinner, is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behaviour; instead to look at external, observable causes of human behaviour. His theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day.
Push and pull
This model is usually used when discussing motivation within the context of tourism. Push factors determine the desire to go on holiday, whereas pull factors determine the choice of destination
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|Figure 5.2.2c Bright and vibrant colours used in the C-Class advertisement |
Operant conditioning is the form of learning in which an individual's behaviour is modified by its consequences. For example, Mercedes-Benz uses their ‘$8,000 COE savings + 3 years of free COE’ promotion as a form of rewarding their customers for purchasing a vehicle from them. They give customers a perception that they will be able to save despite buying an expensive car, thus making customers more likely wanting to buy another vehicle from them again should they decide to.
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, cognitive style, motivation and the capacity to process information, communicate, and relate to others. The most prevalent disabilities found among school age children are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability, dyslexia, and speech disorder. Less common disabilities include intellectual disability, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and blindness.
Applied behavior analysis, a research-based science utilizing behavioral principles of operant conditioning, is effective in a range of educational settings. For example, teachers can alter student behavior by systematically rewarding students who follow classroom rules with praise
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Network Structure and Inter-organizational Knowledge Sharing Capability
ABSTRACT This paper examines how the structure of a supply network can affect the inter-organizational knowledge sharing capability, which is expressed by absorptive capacity and shared identity. The supply network structure is analyzed by two dimensions – formality and centrality. Propositions about the relationships between network structure and knowledge sharing capability are suggested at the end. Subject Areas: Supply chain management, Inter-organizational knowledge sharing, Absorptive capacity, Shared identity, Network structure.
1. INTRODUCTION Historically, individual organizations have tried to improve
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The Phrase ‘commitment’ is frequently used by HRM practitioners in the control of absenteeism and its contribution to business objectives. Evaluate the evidence to reinforce commitment and reduce absenteeism.
Mowday et al have defined organizational commitment as “ the relative strength of an individual’s identification with an involvement in an organization”
(Chapter 7 Attitudes at work, Page no, 265 Work Psychology, Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace by John Arnold (ft) fourth edition)
Commitment is very powerful human concept as if a person is committed to an organization; therefore he or she has a strong identification with it and will turn out to be a
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memories that are buried deep or ones that you want to forget are brought to attention to be discussed. Behavioral treatments build on the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behaviors are both learned. This means that abnormal behaviors learned from the past are addressed so the person can modify their behavior through some type of conditioning to reduce the frequency of the undesired behavior. A cognitive approach teaches people to think more adaptively by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves. This helps people understand the thought and feelings that influence behavior, which then addresses
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Running head: A Horror Show at the Cinemaplex
Assignment 4: A Horror Show at the Cinemaplex
A Horror Show at the Cinemaplex
1. Perform a comprehensive analysis of the five (5) competitive forces. Discuss what level of competition can be anticipated amongst industry rivals.
Among the 5 companies that own the majority of the theater, there is little difference in price or offerings. You don’t see ads saying come to our theater it is better that so and so company. As the text stated the theater that gets picked is usually paced on location.
A. Rivalry among existing competitors
It does not really seem like there is a lot of completion between the theaters
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Types Of Business
There are many different advantages and disadvantages of different types of ownership within the business sector. Before you start you’re new or expanded business plans. You need to explore all the options available to you. Will you be a Sole Proprietor or a Corporation or everything in between? The following report will examine six different business organizations in detail.
Sole Proprietorship: is when the business is fully owned and managed by one person (others can be employed to help run the business) as the sole proprietorship only monetary income is from the business, you don't receive a paycheck. If you need money for living expenses, you take a draw. A Sole
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FP/101 FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONAL FINANCE
Start Date: 04/23/2012
This course provides an overview of the elements necessary for effective personal financial planning and the opportunity to apply the techniques and strategies essential to this understanding. Primary areas of study include creating and managing a personal budget, understanding and paying taxes, working with financial institutions, wise use of credit cards and consumer loans, financing automobiles and homes, and the use of insurance for protecting one’s family and property.
WEEK 1 - TOPIC 1: PERSONAL FINANCIAL PLANNING
List the five steps in the personal financial planning process
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1 What can companies do to protect themselves from legal action with regard to ageism?
On one hand, company can draw up workplace policies to avoid any inference of age discrimination in organizations management by legal adviser. When some policies are ruled by law in organizations, those who are 50 years of age or older have the job chances as same as young people. So that facing ageism problem, it can guarantee that the internal organizations have a completed rules with legal action and manage system to solve and treat fairly.
On the other hand, companies can make employment decisions based on job performance and economic considerations. Except age, they are also legitimate factor to
653 words - 3 pages
Organizing Reaction Paper
Shelia M. Reed
June 6, 2012
The Organizing function follows the planning process and brings the organization’s resources together (Bates & Snell, 2009). These resources include such things as Physical Assets, Monetary Assets, Human Resources, Knowledge, and Technology (Bates & Snell, 2009). Managers have the responsibility of pinpointing resources and activities essential to the organization accomplishing its goals. These resources and actions must be acknowledged, arranged, and appointed to the proper department. Department heads will make sure that their supervisors and employees are
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Keith Seibert 6/3/2012
Prof. Neil Riley ACC 401
PEPSICO AND QUAKER OATS COMPANY
By the end of 1999, following a multi-year restricting effort, PepsiCo had once again become one of the most successful consumer products companies in the world. In less than four years, it had achieved an 80% increase in net income, on 30% lower sales, and with 75% fewer employees! PepsiCo’s major subsidiaries were the Pepsi-Cola Company, which was the world’s largest manufacturer and distributor of snack chips, and Tropicana Products, the largest marketer of branded juices. Throughout 1999, PepsiCo was closely tracking several potential strategic acquisitions
1439 words - 6 pages
Southern New Hampshire University
Definition of Corporate Social Responsibility
October 2, 2012
Pr. Katrina Kerr
The definition of corporate social responsibility
The corporate social responsibility ( CSR) seems to be came in the beginning of the millennium after so many wrong actions in past decades. May be, after the shock of scandals business such as Enron, WorldCom and Parmalat, also with the effect of weather change on the environment, all in consider have make many companies and organizations to rethink about their responsibilities towards their customers and stakeholders. Nowadays, business suggested that CSR is a normative, has
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I would advise the President as follows:
1. He should not think of lowering or setting interest rates unless he wants to copy the Chinese system of Government- Commanded economy. If he still chooses to convert the US economy into a Chinese style economy, he would then have to set the exchange rates, the prices of various other goods and services and yet fail to achieve his objective coming out of recession fast and increasing employment faster. Chinese are somehow managing their economy to grow because they are far poor than the Americans and therefore able to sell cheap to other countries by exploiting their labour which is abundantly available: in the US he will have difficulty in
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CARNIVAL CRUISE LINES
Questions on Strategy
1. What strategy has Carnival adopted in the past to build the cruise line into the dominant player in the industry? Was this a wise approach?
Carnival cruise lines was the dominant player in the cruise industry over the last 30 years because of a strong and highly visible brand, a tight control over costs and a clear vision about the industry. Carnival’s corporate strategy was to see them as a vacation business, not a cruise business putting them in direct competition with other vacation companies. The strategy was to convert land vacationers to cruisers. The company saw the huge untapped potential that the North American
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When a person is a good cook, he or she is usually a clean person as well. However, in Kathy’s case, the opposite turned out to be true. The first time Kathy and I got to know one another was at the VA Medical Center. The afternoon staff at the VA Medical Center decided to have a Memorial Day potluck for those working on that day. The employees working on the holiday drew sticks to decide what each would bring to the potluck. Kathy would bring beef stew, Tucker—corn muffins, Sandy—turnip greens, Maggie—potato salad, Amy—barbecue rib tips, Wendy—soft drinks, plates, and the table coverings, and I would bring a lemon cheesecake.
When Memorial Day came, one of the staff members