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OPERANT CONDITIONING, A THEORY DEVELOPED BY B.F. SKINNER
Dating back to the 1800’s, many theories have developed in reference to Child Development. There have been theories that have become classics and those that continue to cause controversy. Doing research on these theories one of them really stood out to me and that is the one of B.F. Skinner. Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning. The main principles of operant conditioning, as defined by Skinner, are reinforcement, punishment, shaping, extinction, discrimination, and generalization.
Reinforcement is the key
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All three types of learning are part of behaviourism and look at measurable behaviour, rather than on cognitive and biological processes. Classical conditioning was the first learning theory, introduces in the 1900s followed by operant conditioning in the 1940s and the social learning theory after that.
Classical conditioning examines how a response is associated with a stimulus to cause conditioning looking at reflex / involuntary behaviours; operant conditioning involves learning through consequences – punishments and rewards in order to reinforce or decrease the occurrence of behaviour looking at deliberate / voluntary behaviour. Social learning theory accepts the role of
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Phobias and Addictions Paper
As organic beings grow and adapt to our environments we are able to experience and learn many things. As soon as we are born we start to experiment with various mediums for pleasure and for survival. The ways in which we learn have been studied and reviewed many times by many social researchers. The two most prominent forms of learning styles are labeled as Classical and Operant Conditioning. Both Styles allow individuals to perform experiments in which we find out what works, why it works, and the possible changes and outcomes that may be applied as a result. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that already leads to a response is replaced by a different
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1. Define learning.
Learning is the process through which experience modifies behavior and understanding. Allows us to adapt to changing environments. Isn’t: Innate behavior, fixed action pattern or reflex.
Types of learning are Habituation, Classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning.
2. Define classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response. Describe how classical conditioning works by using the stimuli and responses in an example.
Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov.
3. Describe the processes of extinction and spontaneous recovery. Give an example of each.
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Organizational behavior is a study that learn about human behavior especially in the work environment to learn how that behavior have their impact within the organization for the goodness of the organization itself. In learning those behaviors, there are three type of theory that can be used in studying human behavior. They are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning. All of them are theories that learn and study how, why and when human behavior is made. Each of these theories has their own characteristic that differ one to another.
Classical conditioning is the first type of learning theory that learn human behavior by giving neutral stimuli before the expected
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Phobias and Addictions Paper
Week Two Assignment
PSY/300 – General Psychology
October 20, 2012
This is an essay concerning phobias and addictions. Four selected topics in four specific sections are what this paper is comprised of. These topic are:
1. How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning.
2. How addictions can be developed through operant conditioning.
3. Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning.
4. The meaning of "extinction" and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning.
How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning
"A phobia is a group of symptoms brought on by an object or
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¡ Ψ A school of Psychology founded by John Broadus Watson based on the idea that behaviors can be measured, trained and changed.
• OPERANT CONDITIONING ( Skinner)- utilizes reinforcement and punishment to create associations between behaviors and the consequences for those behaviors.
• CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ( Pavlov) - a process that involves creating an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one. Imagine a dog that salivates when it sees food. The food is the naturally occurring stimulus. If you started to ring a bell every time you presented the dog with food, an association would be formed between the food and
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feel afraid, this is became my conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response from my childhood experience is me having a terrible fear of spiders (Spielman, Dumper, Jenkins, Lacombe, & Lovett, 2014).
Operant conditioning is a form of learning that transpires through rewards and punishments for behavior. Behavioral consequence provides positive reinforcement or negative punishment to an animal or person after specific behavior is demonstrated. This reinforcement increases or decreases the likelihood of the behavioral response. In my experienced my learning could have occurred through operant conditioning if I would have kept my shoes on while playing outside, then my godparents decided to
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classical conditioning? Also what is extinction mean and how is it achieved in both conditions? These are the topics I will be answer and I will also be giving examples to each phobia and addiction that can happen through classical and operant conditioning.
“Classical conditioning is when an environmental stimulus leads to a learned response through pairing of an unconditioned stimulus” (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). For example Ivan Pavlov experiment with dogs. He did a study based on dogs and conditioning them to salivate by hearing a bell or a fork being pinged. Basically he would give dogs food after the bell rang. So after a couple tries he would then noticed that
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1. Operant Conditioning- this can be used in the workplace to encourage employees to do good work by rewarding them. For example: If an employee sells 10 cars for the month he gets a bonus and his picture on the wall for great sales but if another employee sells 2 cars for the month he gets a letter stating he is not meeting the job standards and if he continues to sell under the limit he may loose his job. That employee may quickly try to improve and sell more cars to be rewarded for his good works.
Observational Learning- this can be used in the workplace by helping people learn new things and apply new knowledge in their job roles. Paying attention to the steps someone is taking to
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Classical Conditioning: Association of Interest Led to Conditioning
May 21, 2012
Classical Conditioning: Association of Interest Led to Conditioning
Classical conditioning, synonymous with Pavlovian and respondent conditioning, is one of two types of learning (the other type of learning is operant conditioning) that provide a systematic approach to understanding human and nonhuman behavior and the potentiality of changing behavior. Learning significantly affects our way of living, functioning, and survival. Learning's predictability qualities assist in directing behavior. Kowalski & Westen (2009) affirm, "Learning is essentially about
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energy level one of the days that I visited. When asked about the high energy, the student was sated they were so energetic because they had gotten so much sleep. While there are a several different philosophies to describe why we sleep, scientists still do not have a definitive answer for exactly why we sleep. One of the major ideas suggests sleep is vital for repair and renewal of the mind and body – I know when I get enough sleep my body feels refreshed and I am ready to take on my day.
Lastly, I saw the kids doing classical and operant conditioning. Everyone has heard of Pavlov’s dogs and the accidental discovery of classical conditioning. The theory of classical conditioning is
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, and this school of thought continued to dominate for the next 50 years. In likely manner Psychologist B.F. Skinner furthered the behaviorist perspective with his concept of operant conditioning, which demonstrated the effect of punishment and reinforcement on behavior. (Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.)
While behaviorism eventually lost its hold on psychology, the basic principles of behavioral psychology are still widely in use today. Therapeutic techniques such as behavior analysis, behavioral modification and token economies are often utilized to help children learn new skills and overcome maladaptive behaviors
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Informal Learning Experience Using Different Learning Theories
University of Phoenix
October 15, 2014
Throughout the past century, several theories of learning have developed in relation to associative learning, which is the most basic learning that there is. There are two types of associative learning: classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Later on in the mid 1900’s, another more advanced mode of learning was studied, that being observational learning. This paper will present an informal learning experience and use the different theories to break down how this learning could have occurred.
Informal Learning Experience
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study human behavior using laboratory experiment. This is because the process is a scientific process. For instance, participants in the experiment take the memory tests under strict conditions.
Behaviorism assumes that all human behavior is acquired through the interaction of the environment. The symptoms are acquired through operant and classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a process that involves learning through association. The process is usually the cause of most phobias. Operant condition is a process that involves learning through punishment and reinforcement. Operant conditioning provides the possible explanation for certain abnormal behaviors such as eating disorders
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Case Studies Assignment
By: Shani McGee
Student ID: 21890987
Date: August 18, 2014
Essentials of Psychology SSC 130
Case study 1:
1. How did Cliff take advantage of principles of operant conditioning to modify his staff’s behavior?
Cliff took advantage of principles of operant conditionings modify his staff’s behavior by giving them small rewards when they were found working hard
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explained by those needs and values, since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.
Social learning theory is a revision of Sutherlands work. Social learning theory created by Akers and Burgess uses the concepts of modern behaviorism. Akers also believes that criminal behavior is a learned behavior. He argues that it is learned in a specific way, through operant conditioning and imitation of others. An example of operant conditioning is Pavlov’s dogs, where dogs were trained to salivate when they heard a bell ring. A behavioral response occurs by a prior stimulus. This form of behavior depends on instrumental conditioning; which is behavior that is learned as a
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According to B. F. Skinner (Science and Human Behavior, 1965), the Operant Conditioning is the process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur depending on its consequences. The schedule of reinforcement is an important component of learning process under the Operant Conditioning. I would like to apply this theory on the 2 dogs with same age in 2 different educating situation.
The 2 objects of study are Yorkshire Terrier in my cousin’s home and Toy Poodle in ours. The Yorkshire Terrier was educated under random schedule, while the Toy Poodle was educated under continuous reinforcement schedule.
While house training the Yorkshire Terrier and Toy Poodle, classical
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therefore, sets the way they think.
Another perspective is the view of Behaviorism. The Behavioral view believes that behaviors are classically conditioned through reinforcement, which comes through positive and negative reinforcement. There is also operant conditioning. Weiten (2011) states, “Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences” (p. 196). One could argue that Military training operates under the basic premise of behaviorism. When enlisting in the military, many people are excited about the prospect of serving their country. The strenuous hours of exercise serve the purpose of breaking down the physical and
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when she was staying with them. The little Marina discovered that the ways they caught animal is effective and useful and specific sounds conveyed specific meanings. Then, she stored the news skills and knowledge in her memory. During the time she lived in the forest with many wild animals, she imitated and applied what she had learnt. By observational learning, whether people will perform what they learnt is based on the motivation and the benefit. There were so many things and organisms that she never encountered before. Therefore, she was motivated to copy the monkeys’ behaviours in order to survive and take care of herself.
Operant conditioning is a learning process through which
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, pain management, and hypertension have all been successfully treated using this approach. Behavioral procedures are used in the fields of developmental disabilities, mental illness, education and special education, community psychology, clinical psychology, rehabilitation, business, self-management, sports psychology, health-related behaviors, and gerontology.
• 1950’s and 1960’s
o The behavioral approach had its origin in the 1950s and early 1960s, and it was a radical departure from the dominant psychoanalytic perspective.
o In the 1960s Albert Bandura developed social learning theory, which combined classical and operant conditioning with observational learning
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the machines to slowly lose production. Recently, Skinner’s work has started breakthroughs in teaching children to communicate effectively, autistic children especially.
B.F. Skinner was one of the most influential psychologists in American history. His experiments and research are still widely known today. Skinner died in 1990 of leukemia. Eight days before his death, Skinner spoke for the American Psychological Association convention to give his final critique of “cognitive science.” Skinner died battling the growing belief that cognitive processes—thoughts, perceptions, expectations—have a necessary place in psychology and also in the understanding of conditioning. Skinner categorized thoughts and emotions as behaviors that follow the laws that other behaviors do. However, there are many indications in recent research that cognitive processes are active in operant learning.
* Exploring Psychology in Modules
By: David G. Myers
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Theorists, for centuries, have developed their own conclusions regarding the ways in which people learn. B. F. Skinner was one of these people who endeavored to discover the psychology behind human behavior. Skinner formed the Operant Conditioning theory, which is defined as the modification of a player’s behaviour through punishment and reinforcement to achieve greater learning and development (Case & Bereiter, 1984). These punishments and reinforcements are either positive or negative as they result in an increase or decrease of a specific behaviour (Porter, 2007). Reinforcement is either the receiving of something pleasant (e.g. a chocolate bar) or the removal of something unpleasant
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naturally in tobacco, which is as addictive as heroin or cocaine (American Cancer Society,
2014). We can regard smoking as a kind of operant conditioning. When people have taken
in even just a small amount of this chemical, they can gain pleasant feelings from it. The
pleasant feeling acts as a positive reinforcer which encourages people to smoke more.
When my dad tries hard to quit smoking, the distasteful feeling from the lack of nicotine,
which act as a negative punishment, prohibits him to abstain from smoking. Thus, it is not
surprising that a smoker always find it hard to abandon this noxious habit, even they know
this obsession is detrimental.
I have also discovered a interesting
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as for behaving decently and respectfully with each other.
Moral development involves the development of thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do with their interactions with other people (Santrock 2012). In my class, a secondary High School Career and Technical Education class students are at an age that their values and morals should help to guide them in their behavior towards others and to respect the learning environment. Piaget suggest that students of this age show autonomous morality and are aware that rules are created by people and that the understand judgment of actions and consequences. In order to get to this stage, students have been exposed to many years of classical and operant conditioning to understand rewards and punishments from not following the rules or misbehaving.
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arduous assignment of long division problems. The arduous assignment is removed after the homework has been handed in and with the intention of strengthening the likelihood that future homework assignments will be forthcoming.
2. Concept Review:
Behaviorist B.F. Skinner developed the Reinforcement Theory considered to be one of the oldest theories of motivation as way to explain behavior and why we do what we do. The theory may also be known as behaviorism or operant conditioning. According to William N. Schoenfeld (1995) "’reinforcement’ was accorded the status of a "function of the stimulus," and was made
the visavis of operant learning in all its applications and variations: response
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department -> Christmas spirit -> purchasing gift
* Esp, low involvement situation (저관여 상품)
* High involvement – athletic shoes by teenagers
* Instrumental Conditioning : operant, conditioning
* Result -> positive
* Operation Performed after Behavior
* Positive Reinforcement : present positive consequences increase the probability of behavior
* Negative Reinforcement : Remove aversive consequences increase the probability of behavior
* Extinction : Neutral Consequences occur Decrease the probability of behavior
* Punishment : Present aversive consequences Decrease the probability of behavior
* Vicarious Learning
* Model Performs
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Operant conditioning for Marla was, “If I keep quiet and play along, I can do what I want to do.” This form of behavior guaranteed the response Marla wanted; a bit of peace and quiet. She stated that she was constantly worried that she would “loose it one day and go after her children, like mom did me. I am worried my husband is going to cheat on me, and I am worried that I am losing any bit of control I may have over my life.” I explained to her that she does have control of her life. I asked Marla if she was ready to hear what I felt was her greatest problem. She stated she was and I proceeded to give her my evaluation as well as suggestions.
I told Marla, that as long as she continued
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them to bring forth their automatic thoughts and core beliefs – something younger people aren’t developmentally capable of doing yet. An applicable therapy for children is behavioral therapy, because it involves altering their behaviors, which can be done through operant conditioning; bribing or giving rewards to children when they act on positive behaviors.
Limitations and Future Research
Specific therapies might not work the same for every population, like children and adults, yet therapeutic techniques can be taken and molded to fit the standards and characteristics of different populations. Even so, just because people of one culture are in some ways similar to one another, each
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therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs.
Operant conditioning, a term coined by B.F. Skinner, is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behaviour; instead to look at external, observable causes of human behaviour. His theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day.
Push and pull
This model is usually used when discussing motivation within the context of tourism. Push factors determine the desire to go on holiday, whereas pull factors determine the choice of destination
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|Figure 5.2.2c Bright and vibrant colours used in the C-Class advertisement |
Operant conditioning is the form of learning in which an individual's behaviour is modified by its consequences. For example, Mercedes-Benz uses their ‘$8,000 COE savings + 3 years of free COE’ promotion as a form of rewarding their customers for purchasing a vehicle from them. They give customers a perception that they will be able to save despite buying an expensive car, thus making customers more likely wanting to buy another vehicle from them again should they decide to.
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, cognitive style, motivation and the capacity to process information, communicate, and relate to others. The most prevalent disabilities found among school age children are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability, dyslexia, and speech disorder. Less common disabilities include intellectual disability, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and blindness.
Applied behavior analysis, a research-based science utilizing behavioral principles of operant conditioning, is effective in a range of educational settings. For example, teachers can alter student behavior by systematically rewarding students who follow classroom rules with praise
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The first ethical issue presented in the ethics game simulation was whether to warn consumers about the contaminated product and what information to provide consumers about the contaminant. The second ethical issue was whether to sell a product that does not meet U.S. safety requirements in a foreign market that has lower safety restrictions.
G-BioSport was not required to meet prior approval from the Federal Drug Administration before they released their product on the market. After G-BioSport ran test, it was determined that there were traces of a contaminant in the sample received. The quality control manager must identify a developmental solution to maintain the company’s reputation
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Modern American History by Alan Renga 2nd Mid Term!
You will be given 3 Short Essay questions and 20 Multiple Choice questions deriving from this list! 80 points total!
Warren Harding then Calvin Coolidge
Tea Pot Dome
1st Red Scare
Immigration Restriction, Sacco and Vanzetti
Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey, KKK
Prohibition, Al Capone
Flappers, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino
Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey, Knute Rockne, Helen Willis
Scopes Trail, F Scott Fitzgerald
Stocks on Margin & Land Speculation
Hoover Blankets, Hoover Flags, Hoover Ville
Strikes: John L Lewis, United Mine Workers
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ECONOMY 26 Luring a big ﬁrm to town is not the secret to job growth
DEFEND YOUR RESEARCH 30 Are morning people wired for success?
VISION STATEMENT 32 The social web’s east-west divide
COLUMN 38 Warren Bennis looks back on his surprising path to fame
New Thinking, Research in Progress hbr.org New Thinking, Research in Progress hbr.org
The VC Shakeout
Venture capital hasn’t worked for a decade and must be radically restructured if it’s going to inﬂuence innovation—and make solid returns to investors. by Joseph Ghalbouni and Dominique Rouziès
VC QUARTERLY RETURN RATES, 1981–2009
SOURCE CAMBRIDGE ASSOCIATES LLC U.S. VENTURE CAPITAL INDEX
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I hope to provide in this paper a comprehensive understanding for what the term “hospital” has become. Hospitals are an extremely complex system that man has created and shaped and reshaped throughout history. My goal in writing and researching this paper will be to provide those who read it a clear understanding on how the hospital system got to where it is today, and to shed some light on the many organizations that affiliate with and contribute to all the wonderful things that hospitals do for people.
The evolution of hospitals is one of the most interesting things (in my opinion) that history has to offer. Long before America was even in existence there were places of care located
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Semester: Fall, Year: 2012
College Mission Statement
Richard J. Daley College provides high-quality education which leads to academic success, career development, and personal enrichment that fulfill diverse community needs.
Mathematics Department Mission Statement
Our mission is to deliver excellent service and to provide learning opportunities by offering a wide range of mathematics courses, which will help our diverse student population to reach their goals in their path of preference such as baccalaureate transfer, workforce development, adult or continuing education. Our dedicated faculty will guide our students in constructing the necessary elements that
1477 words - 6 pages
Boeing Management Planning
October 22, 2012
Boeing is known as “the world’s leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliner and military aircraft combined ("The Boeing Company: About Us", 2012). Every company uses different types of management techniques including how the planning function of management is used. Planning allows organizations to develop how the customers’ needs can be met, what is expected out of the company, and the environment. The structure of management helps accommodate the need for experience and expertise on important factors. Some of these factors are legal issues, ethics, and corporate
1015 words - 5 pages
Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?
While I believe if one chooses to end his or own life through physician assistance for reasons that they chose, the choice should be up to the individual. Physician-assisted suicide should be at one's discretion. “Assisted Suicide, also called Voluntary Euthanasia, is currently a contentious issue in many countries. Because Euthanasia is legal in a few modern democracies: the Netherlands, Belgium, and Switzerland. In the Netherlands, voluntary euthanasia has been legal since 1983, with some 3,000 people requesting it each year. In Australia, assisted suicide was legalized in the Northern Territory with the backing of a substantial majority of
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Tanglewood’s staffing strategy requires the organization to make key decisions about the acquisition, deployment, and retention of the organization’s workforce. In order to accomplish this, Tanglewood’s must make thirteen decisions regarding its staffing levels and its staffing quality. One of the first decisions that Tanglewood needs to choose is to acquire or develop talent. Tanglewood should try to develop their current talent because one of their focal points of having a successful business is having exceeding customer service, and there is no need to go out and acquire new talent when Tanglewood already has the staff capable of developing their KSAOs. However, Tanglewood will need
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Есе по въпроса: Кои от всички „действащи” лица могат да се разглеждат като морално отговорни и в какво именно? по казуса Форд „Пинто”
Корпоративните злодеяния са нанесли повече вреди на обществото от всички улични престъпления взети заедно. Според данни на ФБР сумата от уличните престъпления възлиза на $3.8 млрд. годишно, а загубите от корпоративните измами между $100 млрд. и $400 млрд. годишно. Корпоративните измами са най-ужасяващите престъпления. Всяка година заради пари смъртта си намират около 16 000 човека или 1/3 от общия брой на годишно загиналите, които са 56 000. За съжаление, все още няма закони за тези престъпления и големите фирми
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The short story ”The Penis” is written by Hanif Kureishi. The short story is about a penis, which has been separated from its owner Doug, who we hear from later on.
At first though we hear about a guy called Alfie who was “a cutter – a hairdresser – and had to get to work”. He is having breakfast with his wife, when she asks him what he did last night, and if he had a good time last night? Alfie can not remember what he did last night, he then looks in his wallet to examine how much money he had spent or if he has any cocaine left or anything else, which could give him a clue of what he has been doing. He finds something strange inside his pocket. In his pocket he finds a penis, with
543 words - 3 pages
Managed Care and Case Management Care
27 August 2012
Managed Care are techniques employed to help reduce the cost for providing health benefits and a system for improving organizations quality of care. The United States National Library of Medicine describes managed care as, “programs that are intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less
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The life expectancy is lower; so people are not kept alive with drugs for decades in a virtual sleep state. There is less state education; so kids don't have it drilled into them that their only goal in life is to make money, at the cost of 'everything' else. The health care is less; so diseases, usually brought by Westerners, kill many more than they do in countries where drug companies can make a fortune from selling medicines that aren't nearly as good as those offered by nature, though Westerners force them to abandon that knowledge. Eg Artemesinin. They haven't got religion, the greatest disaster to ever hit the human race (prove me wrong). In reality, they are far better off than us
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The Political Economy of International Trade
OPENING CASE: Why Are Global Food Prices Soaring?
INSTRUMENTS OF TRADE POLICY
Country Focus: Subsidized Wheat Production in Japan
Import Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints
Local Content Requirements
Management Focus: U.S. Magnesium Seeks Protection
THE CASE FOR GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION
Political Arguments for Intervention
Country Focus: Trade in Hormone-Treated Beef
Economic Arguments for Intervention
THE REVISED CASE FOR FREE TRADE
279 words - 2 pages
Kudler Fine Foods is a specialty food store based in San Diego, California with its three locations in La Jolla, Del Mar, and Encinitas. Kudler Fine food prides itself on offering fresh and organic products that are carefully selected from local farmers and around the world. The organization has recently taken the initiative to start a Frequent Shopper Program to market and increase sales. This program will offer the customers a new way to redeem products by accumulating loyalty points.
Statement of Scope and Goals:
The functions for the project development of the Frequent Shopper Program include tracking the customer’s purchase behavior, in which the customer’s
251 words - 2 pages
The meerkat or suricate, Suricata suricatta, is a small mammal belonging to the mongoose family. Meerkats live in all parts of theKalahari Desert in Botswana, in much of the Namib Desert in Namibia and southwestern Angola, and in South Africa. A group of meerkats is called a "mob", "gang" or "clan". A meerkat clan often contains about 20 meerkats, but some super-families have 50 or more members. In captivity, meerkats have an average life span of 12–14 years, and about half this in the wild.
"Meerkat" is a loanword from Afrikaans. The name has a Dutch origin but by misidentification. Dutch meerkat refers to the "guenon", a
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Case Analysis: Executive and managerial planning for Bosch-Kazakhstan
The founder of the Bosch Group, Robert Bosch , described an important value of the HR philosophy of the company:” It is my intention, apart from the alleviation of all kinds of suffering, to promote the moral, physical and intellectual development of the people” which is greatly integrated into the employee development in the Bosch. Based on the company international executive and managerial planning and country-specific situation, this article will plan and reason the number in a chart for the future eight-year executive and managerial planning in Kazakhstan. An action plan related to the managerial staffing target
301 words - 2 pages
Evangelism in the early church was based of off Jesus Christ’s example. Now Jesus evangelized differently, many people, including his disciples were confused at they way he did things. The disciples did not prioritize the spiritual needs of others like Jesus did. In the case of the Samaritan women, Jesus stepped out of His comfort zone and took the initiative to start the conversation with her. He also broke barriers and turned the conversation to spiritual matters. In this example, Jesus moved from the physical water to her need for the living water. He would boldly and wisely address the issue of sin and refused to be sidetracked. Comparing with Jesus, the disciples struggled with
2848 words - 12 pages
Running Head: Mass Media in Elections
Mass Media’s Affect on Voting Trends
California State University California
In today’s world, the news media reaches and affects every person in the United States. The question now is does mass media such as newspapers, television, and the internet affect the voting trends of the voters? The ownership of the media (Djankov, Nenova, McLiesh, & Shleifer, 2003), targeting specific demographics (Clinton & Lapinski, 2004), the implications of the internet (DiMaggio, Hargittai, Neuman, & Robinson, 2003) and how candidates use media (Aarts & Semetko, 2003) are all important aspects in determining whether a potential bias