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with optimistic, positive, passion, and enthusiasm. Nick has such a wonderful life which beyonds everyone’s expectations. His story tells us the power of optimism!
Optimism is a mental attitude, which interprets everything and every situations with the best parts. From the textbook Organizational Behavior which wrote by Fred Luthans, “optimism is a major construct in positive psychology and has long been recognized by both psychologists and people in general”. Before we introduce optimism we need start from positive psychology. From our textbook, I learned that the positive psychology movement emerged from the concern and research of positive features of people. Psychologists like Martin
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of needs so they can keep developing throughout life and don’t stop just because they are in long-term residential care. I believe this is an important aspect of humanistic psychology. It helps the workers understand about needs so that good practice can be developed to help residents reach their potential. For example, maintain and facilitate their cognitive and spiritual interests.
Carl Rogers says there are many aspects of the self, but one of the important aspects of our self-concept is how we see ourselves (our self-perception). In residential care the staff should empower the service user so they have positive self-perceptions and can move up their hierarchy of needs. The staff can do
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socially with her clients, she said some just steal her heart!
The differences between the two are simple, just personal questions that are likely to form different answers. For the question about approach to treatment, they both said they like to use a range of treatment options, but one said the one she uses most is the cognitive behavioral techniques and social skills training. The other said she likes to use the Rogerian approach, or motivational interviewing.
For their opinion of where psychology is heading one said she thinks it is growing so fast because of the acceptation psychology has now. The other said she hopes to see the new orientation of psychology. She would like to see more research done about positive psychology. I had never heard of this study. But is has a emphasis on the strengths of the mind. Such as, hope and dreams.
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behaviors. In behavioral therapy, the focus is on reinforcing positive behaviors and not reinforcing maladaptive behaviors. This approach targets only the behavior itself, not the underlying causes.
* Abnormal psychology revolves around two major paradigms for explaining mental disorders, the psychological paradigm and the biological paradigm. The psychological paradigm focuses more on the humanistic, cognitive and behavioral causes and effects of psychopathology. The biological paradigm includes the theories that focus more on physical factors, such as genetics and neurochemistry.
* There are recent concepts of abnormality:
* Statistical abnormality – when a certain
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Kindersley India pvt ltd 2. Baumgardner, S. & Crothers, M. (2009). Positive Psychology. Pearson Education 3. Brannon, L. & Feist J. (2007). Introduction to Health Psychology. Thomson Wadworth. New Delhi: Indian edition 4. Greenberg, J. S. (2008). Comprehensive Stress Management. (10th ed). McGraw Hill publications
12 5. Hariharan, M., & Rath, R. (2008). Coping with Life Stress: The Indian Experience. New Delhi: Sage publications India pvt ltd 6. Schafer, W. (2002). Stress Management. (4th ed). New Delhi: Wadsworth Cengage Learning India pvt ltd; first Indian reprint 2008 7. Snyder, C.R., & Lopez, S.J. (2007). Positive Psychology – The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. New
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or subconscious level.
The color orange is the color of social communication and optimism. From a negative color meaning it is also a sign of pessimism and superficiality.
For more on the color orangeIn the meanings of color in color psychology, the color yellow is the color of the mind and the intellect. It is optimistic and cheerful. However it can also suggest impatience, criticism and cowardice.
Green is the color of balance and growth. It can mean both self-reliance as a positive and possessiveness as a negative, among many other meanings.
Blue is the color of trust and peace. It can suggest loyalty and integrity as well as conservatism and frigidity.
Indigo is the color of
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In this wonderful experience, I learned plenty about the kids and how I could connect their everyday behavior. In all the units we have covered, they displayed most, if not all the attributes about behavior, the way the brain works and how we learn towards certain things. This experience helped me grow in understanding psychology.
The first psychology reference that I noticed were the behaviors that made them human. Behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson and was based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. Behaviorism is a concept of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are developed through conditioning
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abuse when she was a child. If Jane didn't experience her childhood abuse from her father she wouldn't have accepted her husband to abuse her. (“The general goal of psycho-dynamic psychologists is to explore unconscious dynamics, internal motives, conflicts, and childhood experiences”). (Freud’s).
I chose humanistic as a second modern perspective of psychology. If Jane would have gotten to understand herself and her values she could have had a chance to avoid the beatings as she became an adult. Her father could have helped her by giving her the positive love and approach she needed. (“Which stressed free will (voluntarily chosen behavior) and self-actualization (a state of self-fulfillment
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especially to the honor students, in addition of Myers (2010) found that an average American 13-18 years old sent or received
1,742 test messages per month. Most often these young texters have been involved in
romantic relationships. Therefore the research of Campbell & Oliver(1994) found benefits in
having a romantic relationship such as “companionship, feeling of happiness or elation,
exclusivity, feeling loved or loving another, intimacy, self-growth and self-understanding,
and more positive self-esteem”(). These benefits found in a romantic relationship were
said to be the cause of motivation of the students in pursuing their studies Campbell & Oliver (1994) also pointed out some costs
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are attracted to people that are like themselves and who are physically attractive and knowledgeable.
Groups can have a negative or a positive effect on an individual’s behavior. Groups can be coupled with one’s identity; can give one a boost of self-esteem, and an important part of friendships. Most people join groups of liked minded people. A group allows someone to connect with people that share the same interest as themselves or to build connections for business or personal needs. According to social identity theory, in-groups raise our self-esteem because we see the members of the group as special (Carter, 2014).
Conformity involves changing one’s opinions to line up with someone
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used to later explain why they do the things they do (e.g. they will score highly because they are intelligent). Interestingly, individuals tend to assign dispositional attributions to positive outcomes (e.g. passing due to their intelligence) and situational attributions to negative outcomes (e.g. failing the test due to a migrane). The biggest driver of this manipulation to appear better than we are —‘self-serving bias’— is our inner “press secretary”. It’s the idea that our brains are ‘spin doctor’s’ that work for positive social interpretation (Kurzban & Aktipis, 2007). Due to the social anxiety of interpretation of self, people engage in non-natural conscious behaviour e.g. reminding
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focuses on the objective and observable components of behavior. Behaviorism focus on behaviors that can be observed only. Behaviorism deals with the consequences of behavior and those behaviors can be rewarded or punished. (Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2006). An overview of the behavioral perspective. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. )
Behaviourism is derived from the belief that free will is an illusion. According to a pure behaviourist, ( John B. Watson (1878-1958)) human beings are shaped entirely by their external environment. Alter a person's environment, and you will alter his or her thoughts, feelings, and behaviour. Provide positive
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Color Psychology Paper
How does color affect one’s mood?
Review of Literature:
Colors may just seem simple and unimportant, but they affect our daily lives more than we may know. If someone is feeling angry, it could just be because they’re angry, or it could be perhaps that they are surrounded by or looking at the color red. That’s right! People’s moods can change just because they are looking at different colors! There are many theories on how just a simple color can change one’s whole mood.
According to Johnson (2007), color does affect mood by producing certain chemicals and stimulating different feelings such as hunger. For example, blue can make one feel calm
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therefore, sets the way they think.
Another perspective is the view of Behaviorism. The Behavioral view believes that behaviors are classically conditioned through reinforcement, which comes through positive and negative reinforcement. There is also operant conditioning. Weiten (2011) states, “Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences” (p. 196). One could argue that Military training operates under the basic premise of behaviorism. When enlisting in the military, many people are excited about the prospect of serving their country. The strenuous hours of exercise serve the purpose of breaking down the physical and
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Case Studies Assignment
By: Shani McGee
Student ID: 21890987
Date: August 18, 2014
Essentials of Psychology SSC 130
Case study 1:
1. How did Cliff take advantage of principles of operant conditioning to modify his staff’s behavior?
Cliff took advantage of principles of operant conditionings modify his staff’s behavior by giving them small rewards when they were found working hard
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Social Exchange Theory
Social exchange theory is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. Social exchange theory posits that human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives. The theory has roots in economics, psychology and sociology. Social exchange theory features many of the main assumptions found in rational choice theory and structuralism. Social exchange theory was introduced in 1958 by the sociologist George Homans with the publication of his work "Social Behavior as Exchange". He
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grill when they were cooking.
Applying different theories of learning: classical conditioning
Using the classical conditioning model of learning, the unconditional stimulus at first was the delicious smell and taste of cooked hamburger. This was a positive experience for Anna as she had had good experiences with hamburger prior to getting ill. Her unconditioned response was that she could feel her stomach rumbling and her mouth salivated. After Anna became ill, she associated hamburgers with symptoms of sickness, and the smell of cooked hamburger became a conditioned stimulus. Because of her negative experience with getting sick to her stomach the morning after eating the hamburger
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is not such a shock if things do not go your way. In my opinion as long as you are a positive optimist then you should live a long and healthy life for the most part.
Wimberly, S., Carver, C., & Antoni, M. (2008). Effects of optimism, interpersonal relationships, and distress on psychosexual well-being among women with early stage breast cancer. Psychology & Health, 23(1), 57-72. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
OPTIMISM, PESSIMISM, AND HEALTH. (2004). In Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior Management, Sage. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/sageeohabm/optimism_pessimism_and_health
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Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-Being
What alternatives to cosmetic depression drugs do you think would be effective and how could universities apply them to depressed students?
In Flourish, Martin Seligman describes two forms of medication: cosmetic drugs and curative drugs. He further explains that insurance companies can only reimburse brief treatments because a complete cure generally implies more time and cost. As a result, Seligman concludes, all psychopharmacopoeai drugs are cosmetic, palliative, and only temporary fixes. Thus, the use of positive psychology in the treatment of depressed patients is even more important.
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stimulus. In operant conditioning a behavior is picked out and either reinforced or punished to make it more or less common. In laymen’s terms it acts to modify or replace the stimulus that leads to a given response, and the other to modify or refine a response (Psychology 5e, 2010).
Classical Conditioning is a technique used in the change and adaption of a specific behavior. It is the naturally occurring stimulus that is paired with a defined response. A neutral stimulus is then paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. The goal is to have the neutral stimulus evoke the response without the need of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two functions become the conditioned stimulus and
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1. The field of organizational behaviour (OB) has emerged from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, political science, and economics, although it is primarily identified with psychology. It has often been defined as studying behaviour of individuals and groups within organizations. This is usually referred to as “micro-OB”
2. Organizational theory (OT) is the body of research and knowledge concerning organizations. Organization theory originally focused primarily on the organization as a unit, as opposed to organization behaviour, which explored individual and group behaviour within the organization. This perspective is sometimes also called “macro-OB”.
3. Two Types of
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are acted outside of the human mind , better known as our actions. It is usually based on inductive thinking, collected data, and a persons relationships, which help us to better understand behavior , also known as behaviorism.
There are many different major contributors that have helped to shape the field of behaviorism as a result forming this behavioral model. Three of the contributors in particular had a very positive effect on how we now view behavior , Edward L. Thorndike , Ivan Pavlov, and John B. Watson.
Edward L. Thorndike was a psychology professor at Teachers College , Columbia University who chose to work with animals , chickens, rather than running surveys and experiments
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Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment with Google
Professor Berkina Porter
BUS322 – Organizational Behavior
February 9, 2014
According to Jane Williams, industrial organization psychologist, from Indiana University and Purdue University says that Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction are two are the most important work attitudes needed in today’s organizational psychology. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction are very closely related to each other. Job satisfaction is defined “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job and job experiences
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The Phrase ‘commitment’ is frequently used by HRM practitioners in the control of absenteeism and its contribution to business objectives. Evaluate the evidence to reinforce commitment and reduce absenteeism.
Mowday et al have defined organizational commitment as “ the relative strength of an individual’s identification with an involvement in an organization”
(Chapter 7 Attitudes at work, Page no, 265 Work Psychology, Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace by John Arnold (ft) fourth edition)
Commitment is very powerful human concept as if a person is committed to an organization; therefore he or she has a strong identification with it and will turn out to be
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Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality
in Christian Counseling
4-MAT Review: McMinn
Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling written by Mark McMinn (2011) discuss the integration of psychology and spirituality including impacts of such in our daily lives both personally and professionally. According to McMinn (2011) there are three essential categories that must be considered within counseling; psychology, theology, and spirituality. To incorporate the three categories, the book down into further sections including prayer, scripture, sin, confession, forgiveness, and redemption including “what if” sections with
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inveteracy of class- based discrimination can influence their psychological health. They look down upon underclasses. They force those below to do overmuch back- breaking work. Discrimination based on social background contributes stress and other physiological changes as well. Therefore, class discrimination will damage both the physical and the mentally health of underclasses, especially teenager’s. Child labour, a special example of class discrimination, has attracted social concern.
A great number of people are affected by the popular psychology. Those people are usually in middle class. They keep conformity with upper status people, which is kind of humankind’s nature. Discrimination
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• (1904–1990) Reported that he was brought up in a warm, stable family environment.
• As he was growing up, Skinner was greatly interested in building all sorts of things, an interest that followed him throughout his professional life.
• He received his PhD in psychology from Harvard University in 1931 and eventually returned to Harvard after teaching in several universities.
• He had two daughters, one of whom is an educational psychologist and the other an artist.
• Skinner was a prominent spokesperson for behaviorism and can be considered the FATHER OF THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGY.
• Skinner championed radical behaviorism, which places
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the effects of dopamine at the D2 receptors, and are able to reduce positive symptoms in a schizophrenic individual. Therefore, it can be said that the dopamine hypothesis and the use of antipsychotic drugs are effective in the decrease of positive symptoms of a schizophrenic individual.
Abi-Dargham, A. (2004). Do we still believe in the dopamine hypothesis? New data bring new evidence. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 7 (1), S1-S5.
Bear, M. F., Connors, B. W. & Paradiso, M. A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Breedlove, S. M., Rosenzweig, M. R. & Watson, N. V. (2010). Biological psychology
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Phobias and Addictions Paper
Week Two Assignment
PSY/300 – General Psychology
October 20, 2012
This is an essay concerning phobias and addictions. Four selected topics in four specific sections are what this paper is comprised of. These topic are:
1. How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning.
2. How addictions can be developed through operant conditioning.
3. Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning.
4. The meaning of "extinction" and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning.
How phobias can be developed through classical conditioning
"A phobia is a group of symptoms brought on by an object or
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the face where two muscles are roused into action: “The zygomatic major, which resides in the cheek, tugs the lips upward, and the orbicularis oculi, which encircles the eye socket, squeezes the outside corners into the shape of a crow’s foot. The entire event is short, typically lasting from two-thirds of a second to four seconds and those who witness it often respond by mirroring the action, and smiling back.” (Jaffe 2010).
What if research were to show that the simple act of smiling at people can effect enormous positive changes in their lives and our lives too, just like Mahatma Gandhi said, “Be the change you want to see in the world,” smiling can positively affect everyone around.
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Theoretical Foundations of Practice
Historical Development of Nursing Timeline
The purpose of this paper is to explain the historical development of nursing science by presenting different theorists and their theories with explicit events and years in the history of nursing, and inform on the affinity between the profession and nursing science. This paper also includes the importance of nursing science of other disciplines such as psychology, anthropology, education, philosophy, religion and the social science.
The history of professional nursing starts with Florence Nightingale, who is considered the mother of nursing science. Nightingale placed emphasis on good
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. Statistical Treatment
The percentage method was used to determine the effects of romantic relationships in the studies of Cavite State University students. The Pearson r correlation was also used to determine the relation of the grades of the students to the total number of boyfriends/girlfriends they had and the number of years of their experience in romantic relationships. According to Susan Archambault (2000) of the Psychology Department of Wellesley College, The Pearson R correlation tells the magnitude and direction of the association between two variables that are on an interval or ratio scale.
The formula for the Pearson r correlation is shown below.
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EMPOWERING LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE CREATIVITY
This paper is organized as follows. First we explain the theory on psychological empowerment and various leadership theories to develop a relationship between empowering leadership and employee creativity. Secondly it provides case studies to support the empowerment theories. We argue that the use positive psychology, specifically empowering leadership, contributes to employee success within an organization. The paper cites research by various highly esteemed professors and the primary sources were various internet articles, journals and websites.
The use of positive psychology, originally proposed by
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behavior in organizations: individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively.
• To sum up our definition, OB is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the organization’s performance.
Nature Of Organizational Behavior (OB)
• Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines such as psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology and economics.
• So now students let’s see how these disciplines are related to organizational behavior,
• Psychology. Psychology is the study of
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to deliver. The problem could be if they give other drivers too many extra stops they may not be able to deliver them by the time commitment the shipper has paid for. The other solution for this problem would be to find someone else to deliver these packages. The problem with this solution is management is paying overtime to the driver. This cost more to deliver the package compared to if the regular diver was there.
Turnover can be a positive or negative for an employee or the organization. Employees who leave their job for a better job would be positive for the employee. This may be a positive for the company as well. If the employee has been with the
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element in Skinner's theory. A reinforcement is any characteristic in the environment that serves to increase the probability that a person will repeat a behavior in the future. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction (Cook).
An example of a positive reinforcement is a child receives their report card and brings it home to mom and dad. The child received four “A’s” and one “B”. For every “A” received the parents reinforce that child with money. In middle school “A’s” are worth twenty dollars each but moving into high school they are worth fifty dollars each. This child will be highly motivated to bring home as many “A’s” as they can
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Nathan the Gymnast
As a toddler Nathan love to climb on things and he can balance on objects that was on the floor in his house. There are three learning theories Behaviorist, Cognitivist and Constructionist it can be put in an application that is hypothetical a gymnast by the name Nathan in this story Nathan the Gymnast .The first behaviorist theory is how to make Nathan turn his negative into positive reinforcement. In the story the cognitivist theory we must help Nathan with his mental process in problem solving, and then with his constructionist theory can be applied with how it will help Nathan by using the active process of his learning when using outside sources. Nathan
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hospital. Every day since that incident occurred I have had a deadly fear of spiders.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder where you have an excessive fear of a certain object or situation, says Raphael Rose, PhD, associate director of the Anxiety Disorders Research Center and associate clinical professor at the University of California-Los Angeles' Department of Psychology and Psychiatry and Bio-behavioral Sciences. An estimated 19.2 million American adults’ deal with specific phobias, the National Institute of Mental Health reports. And specific phobias are twice as common in women as in men, NIMH says. Phobias usually develop during childhood or, if not then, by early adulthood, Rose
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Tang Ka Man 15072501D
Helping My Father to Quit Smoking in Psychological Ways
My father has been a smoker for a very long time. He started smoking since he was at
college age. My family used to blame him for having this harmful habit while my father
always find it difficult to quit smoking. We have put a lot of efforts to help him to be out of
this dangerous hell, yet all we have done is futile. After attending psychology lessons, I
could suggest some reasons on that from a psychological perspective.
To figure out the most suitable methods to help my father quit smoking, it is essentially
important to know the reasons why he was addicted to smoking. Nicotine is a drug found
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having them enter a room and laying a hand on a person who is not considered to be “bewitched”. If the person who is being touched has no reaction to the touch of the accused, then this is a clear sign of innocence. However, this method was not used very much because there could be a false negative or positive reaction from the touch of the “bewitched”.
There was a famous case for considering if a person was “bewitched” in 1662. Two older ladies were being convicted of “bewitching” two young girls and their names were Rose Cullender and Amy Denny. The girls were touched at first by the two women and had a reaction to the touch. However, to prove that the girls were not lying about being
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., & Wessely, S. (1991). Reasoning in deluded schizophrenic and paranoid patients: Biases in performance on a probabilistic inference task. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179, 194–201.
Garety, P.A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Freeman, D. & Bebbington, P.E. (2001) A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine 31, 189-195.
Green, M.J., Williams, L. & Hemsely, D.R. (2000) Cognitive Theories of delusion formulation: The contribution of visual scanpath research. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 5, 63-74.
Huq, S. F., Garety, P. A., & Hemsley, D. R. (1988). Probabilistic judgements in deluded and non-deluded subjects. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
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stretch as far as safeguarding children. For example if I thought a student
was suffering abuse at home or was homeless it is my duty to report this to the
safeguarding representative in college. I as a trainee teacher have a duty of care over my
students and understand the duty of care expected of me as a teacher.
Teaching needs to be a varied environment upon which learner's can experience different
learning strategies. This could be through group work or discussion based, whichever way
the teacher deliver's the lesson the end outcome is generally more positive from the
learner's point of view.
The teacher has a very important moral
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God only created man and woman. And based on many religions, they believe that the sole reason of marriage is to mate and reproduce.
Psychology The impact of stigma. Laws that exclude lesbian, gay and bisexual people from marriage causes stress, and that stress negatively impacts physical and mental health. How children fare. Research shows that children raised by lesbian and gay parents develop in the same positive ways that children raised by heterosexual parents do, and that same-sex couples are just as capable of providing a supportive environment for children.
For me, I am in favor of same-sex marriage agreement, because marriage is a fundamental human right of everyone and it also
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"Self-esteem" is simply a psychological term used in reference to one's image of oneself. In other words, how much self-confidence does an individual possess is a measure of self-esteem.
While the concept of self-esteem is certainly nothing new -- in fact, it was studied as far back as the 19th Century -- its focus in psychological terms is relatively recent. The term "self-esteem" was first used by William James, a psychologist who wrote in 1892 about the effects of negative self-images among children.
The 1950s and 1960s were an important decade in the study of human emotions and one of the leading students of psychology was Nathaniel Branden, who is credited with the modern
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Instructor Keisha Dean
January 15, 2015
The legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic for many years now. Do the pros of the legalization of marijuana outweigh the cons of the legalization of marijuana? I believe so. The fact is Marijuana legalization would have an abundance of positive effects for not only the U.S. but for the world as well. Cannabis is not a deadly plant. However some choose to argue that the crime rate would rise as of a result of the legalization of marijuana. However legalization of cannabis would lessen the prison population, allow marijuana to be table and create billions of dollars
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psychology that is relative to human behaviors that focuses on the way people think and such thought process affect their way of behaviors.
I have a bad smoking habit, in which I developed while I was incarcerated. I always told myself that I would never pick up this terrible habit when I was a teenager, more importantly I didn’t pick up smoking until I was 18. There were role models for my smoking habit, such as the lady prisoners who smoke on a daily basis. They had told me “try it, it will calm your nerves down”, granted that it would calm my nerves down, I tried it. I was coughing at first, but then I felt a sensation that I had felt the first and last time ever, a sensation that I
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Step Three – Downsize (if necessary)
Month One - Preparation
Determine the desired number of employees needed to reduce to increase sales revenue
Month Two – Preparation
Prepare internal communication strategy
How to introduce staff cuts in a positive way.
Develop program to address the mental health of remaining employees
Ways to retain remaining employees
Reassure job security of remaining employees
Address possible disgruntle concerns
Initiate hiring freeze
Months Five - Seven
Introduce voluntary separation scheme to employees with a target of 90% acceptance.
Prepare organization for restructuring of current
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fastening to negative memories and emotions, a victim of warfare will struggle to form new, more positive connections to the past. It is as though the war never ends for them. In the case of soldiers, in particular, this inability to let go is often associated with feelings of guilt and self-hatred, because they were participants in the violence. “PTSD involves over activation of the amygdala, a structure that mediates fear responses, as a result of reduced activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area that tamps down emotional reactions” (Bower, 2008, p.5). The affected individual is quite literally emotionally charged by the lingering fear associated with the traumatic event.
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Mary Louise Hemmeter, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the
Department of Special Education at the University of Illinois in UrbanaChampaign and the principal investigator of a five-year project to
enhance the capacity of Head Start and child care providers to address
the social and emotional needs of young children.
Gail E. Joseph, Ph.D., assistant research professor at the University of
Colorado at Denver, has been engaged in several national projects
focused on professionals working with children with challenging behaviors.
Phillip S. Strain, Ph.D., professor in educational psychology at the
University of Colorado at Denver, has designed comprehensive early
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ETHICS IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Identify any ethical issues most likely to take place in the function of HRM in an organization
The term ‘organizational justice’ refers to the extent to which employees perceive workplace procedures, interactions and outcomes to be fair in nature. These perceptions can influence attitudes and behavior for good or ill, in turn having a positive or negative impact on employee performance and the organization’s success. The concept of organizational justice extends traditional models of work behaviour that tend to conceptualize job demands, job control and social support as the main factors determining