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vol. 14, no. 1/2010
Changing Methodologies in Financial Audit and Their Impact on Information Systems Audit
Doctoral School – Accounting and Management Information Systems Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com This paper tries to provide a better understanding of the relation between financial audit and information systems audit and to assess the influence the change in financial audit methodologies had on IS audit. We concluded that the COSO Internal Control – Integrated Framework was the starting point for fundamental changes in both financial and IS audit and that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act should be viewed as an enabler
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will justify other activities than financial statement audit that can be performed by a public accountant like performance/operational audit, internal audit and compliance audit.
2. COURSE OBJECTIVES
This course intends the student:
1. To comprehend applicable regulations, legal responsibilities and ethical standards and current issues facing the audit profession.
2. To appreciate the concepts of internal control system and the use of computer assisted audit techniques in auditing a computerised environment.
3. To understand and apply audit risk, materiality, and statistical and non statistical audit sampling techniques.
4. To be familiar with related
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properly. As a result, which practices are needed to achieve total independence? Moreover, how do we weigh the cost of financial misstatements with the cost of redundancy due to rotation of audit firms? Demanding public companies to rotate their audit firms may appear reasonable on paper, however, this rotation brings more concerns than answers.
Currently in the auditing of publicly held companies, lead audit partners are required to rotate of audits every five years. This ruling was enacted from the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). Also, SOX requires a 1-year cooling off period if the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), controller, etc. was previously employed by
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First, you will receive a letter to inform you of an upcoming audit. The auditor will send you a preliminary checklist. This is a list of documents (e.g. organization charts, financial statements) that will help the auditor learn about your unit before planning the audit.
After reviewing the information, the auditor will plan the review, conduct a risk workshop primarily to identify key risks and raise risk awareness, draft an audit plan, and schedule an opening meeting.
The opening meeting should include senior management and any administrative staff that may be involved in the audit. During this meeting, the scope of the audit will be discussed. You
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AUDITING ONLINE TEST
1. A limitation of an audit is caused by:
a. The nature of financial reporting.
b. The nature of audit procedures
c. The need for the audit to be conducted within a reasonable period of time and at a reasonable cost
d. All of the above
2. Which of the following is NOT true about Corporate Social Responsibility assurance?
a. Reporting is voluntary and is becoming more widespread.
b. Includes both financial and non-financial information.
c. Is required to be performed by an auditor.
d. Disclosures include environmental, employee and social reporting
3. Auditor independence is:
a. Defined as acting with
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The Audit Report and Internal Control Evaluation
University of Phoenix
April 21, 2014
Professor Hillary Edmondson
Auditor’s Responsibility for Detecting and Reporting Fraud
It is the responsibility of the audit engaged in the audit process to detect material misstatement in management’s assertions. These material misstatements must also be properly reported. Arens et. al (2012) defined fraud as “…any intentional deceit meant to deprive another person or party of their property or rights” p 433. Fraud as it relates to financial reporting is the intentional misstatements of the company’s financial statements and the misappropriations of the
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This will confirm our understanding of the arrangements for our audit of the financial statements of Apollo Shoes, for the year ending December 31,2011.
We will audit the Company's balance sheet as of December 31,2011 and the related statements of income, retained earnings, and especially cash flows for the year then ended, for the purpose of expressing an opinion on them. The financial statements are the responsibility of the Company management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the financial statements based on our audit.
We will conduct our audit in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to
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Answer the following questions using the annual report of Dell, Inc. in Appendix A.
a. Who is responsible for the preparation and integrity of Dell’s financial statements and notes? Management has the primary responsibility for the preparation and integrity of Dell’s financial statements and notes.
b. In which note does Dell report its significant accounting policies used to prepare financial statements? Note 1 is where Dell report its significant accounting policies used to prepare financial statements.
c. What type of audit opinion is reported in its annual report and whose opinion is it? An integrated audit as been completed, of Dell Inc.’s January 28, 2005 consolidated
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continued to experience severe trading problems and was placed in
liquidation in December 2012.
King & Queen has been notified by EFL’s solicitors that they are taking
action against your firm based on the audit of the 30 June 2012 financial
report. EFL claim that the cause of Impulse’s failure related to the
inadequate provision for doubtful debts and a fall in the value of
inventories on hand, and that these problems were evident at 30 June
2012, but had not been adequately dealt with in the financial report due
to your negligence. They also claim that they would not have given the
loan to Impulse if the 2012 financial report had been qualified.
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c) To what extent is the auditor liable for misstatements in the financial statements of the audited company?
Note:Issuing Audit Reports simulation located on the Week Five Materials page
Submit your Course Summary the Main Classroom forum. Submit a brief Course summary indicating what you have learned from this course over the past 5 weeks.
ACC 492 Week 5 Team Assignment Case study assignment
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Work on the following assignment with your Learning Team, and then have one member of your team post a collective response from the team in the Assignments folder of the responsible individual.
Case Study Assignment:Prepare written answers to the following: Learning Check 4:17 from the text, Modern Auditing: Assurance Services and the Integrity of Financial Reporting (8th ed.) by Boynton and Johnson. .
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your business. On the other hand, this creates an issue that they would be developing that which they will audit. The Sarbanes Oxley Act Section 201 restricts non-audit services for issuers. In this case, technology services could be viewed as financial information services or expert services.
[b] Independence rule 101 states that a partner or employee may not hold more than 5% and the partners holdings are just over half of one percent. Therefore, this is not a violation of the AICPA code of professional conduct.
To: Audit Partner
From: Gina Grange
Date: January 10, 2012
Re: Client Recommendation
It is my recommendation that we do not accept Ocean
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accounting scandal, the firm subsequently restated its opinion in its 2013 audit report: “Also in our opinion, the Company did not maintain, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of July 31, 2013 …”
In the company’s restated financial statements of 2012, the company stated that an internal investigation was launched and found sufficient evidence that payments for Walnut was recorded in the wrong period, and quarterly estimates of its walnut cost was also wrong. In addition, the company’s accounts payable and accrued expenses related to the walnut business is also misstated for the previous 2 years. The company performed an extensive review of its
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Knapp Cases â€“ NextCard
1. Should auditors evaluate the soundness of a clientâ€™s business model? Defend your answer.
The auditors donâ€™t have the full responsibility of looking over the client business model. But they should a good understanding of the clientâ€™s business model and industry, this way they can develop more accurate expectations for financial statements assertions.
2. Identify and briefly describe the specific fraud risk factors present during the 2000 NextCard audit. How should these factors have affected the planning and execution of that engagement?
The three examples of risk factors are pressure, opportunities, and
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1. Primary audit risk factors that were evident within Powder River’s operations are:
• Fraudulent Financial Reporting Risk for Revenue
• Other Areas of Fraud Risk.
From year-end 2004 through the first-quarter 2008, defendant Brian Fox misled the investing public by fraudulently inflating the revenue and assets and fraudulently omitting major liabilities, of Powder River Petroleum International, Inc. (“Powder River” or the “company”) in the company’s Commission filings, and by making other false and misleading public disclosures. From year-end 2004, Powder River conveyed working interests in oil and gas leases to investors in Asia for over $43 million. Because Powder
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penyajian dan pengungkapan.
Sebagai bagian dari telaah akhir dalam pengungkapan laporan keuangan, banyak KAP mensyaratkan adanya penyelesaian daftar pemeriksaan pengungkapan laporan keuangan (financial statement disclure checklist) untuk setiap audit. Kuesioner ini didesain untuk mengingatkan auditor tentang masalah yang biasanya muncul dalam laporan keuangan dan memfasilitasi telaah akhir untuk keseluruhan audit oleh seorang rekanan independen.
Gambar 24-7 mengilustarasikan daftar pemeriksaan pengungkapan laporan keuangan.
4. Mengaudit review Dokumentasi
Ada tiga alasan mengapa seorang anggota kantor akuntan publik yang berpengalaman harus meneliti dengan seksama review dokumentasi
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purchase Hi-Sail, which could be a bad investment, and the auditor might lose the second client.
The parties are affected and their rights are
1. Management, including the president and controller, have the right to have the audit completed on a timely and cost-effective basis and to a proper consideration of their claims.
2. The board of directors, including the chairperson, have the right to insist that the financial statements be fairly presented by management and on a timely and effective audit. The chairperson has a right to be heard and to have the auditor obtain evidence to support or contradict his claims.
3. Current and prospective creditors and investors, including
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Top Five Ways to Avoid a Tax Audit
1. Check your figures
One of the most common red flags for auditors – erroneous data entry – is also one of the most preventable. It seems simple enough to follow the advice to “double-check your return,” but surprisingly, people often are too careless regarding their taxes, said Thomas Jensen, managing partner of Vaerdi Financial in Portland, Oregon.
He advised waiting for all your income reports, bank and investment statements and other applicable financial paperwork to arrive before starting your tax return.
“Sometimes people simply forget (income) or they don’t get all of their forms gathered, and they make mistakes that are avoidable,” Jensen said
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easy Recording, classifying, and summarizing economic events in a logical manner for the purpose of providing financial information for decision making is commonly called:
c a. finance.
easy In the audit of historical financial statements, which of the following accounting bases is the most common?
c a. Regulatory accounting principles.
b. Cash basis of accounting.
c. Generally accepted accounting principles.
d. Liquidation basis of accounting.
easy Any service that requires a CPA firm to issue a report about the reliability of an assertion that is made by another party is
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Cutoff relates to whether transactions and events have been recorded in the correct accounting period. Audit procedures must ensure that transactions occurring near year-end are recorded in the financial statements in the proper period.
For example, the auditor may want to test proper cutoff of revenue transactions at December 31. This can be done by examining a sample of shipping documents and sales invoices for a few days before and after year-end.
Audit Evidence is evidence obtained during a financial audit and recorded in the audit working papers.
In the audit engagement acceptance or reappointment stage, audit evidence is the information that the auditor
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accurately calculate the allowance for doubtful accounts. There should have also been more evidence gathered about revenue since the company had yet to post a profitable quarter, and would have pressure to overstate revenue. NextCard was a company in a new industry, which is uncharted waters, so there must be more work done to ensure proper financial statements. If the audit team would have looked through the financials they would have seen that NextCard was acting illegally by understating their losses, and they would have then had to give NextCard an adverse opinion.
3. The audit workpapers are the auditor’s evidence and justification for their audit opinion. The workpapers contain all
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from higher management to punish Giles and Regas using work time as personal time.
6.Accounting, Auditing, or Taxation Issues
CAA industry’s audit report may be inefficient and inaccurate. The potential of insufficient audit report may affect financial statements.
Fire both Giles and Regas because they have a conflict of interest between their dating and working on audit report.
Give them a second chance
Fire both Giles and Regas
Legality. The firm has ever reason to to fire both Giles and Regas because they did violate the firms policy and more importantly they are jeopardizing the firms reputation.
Professional Standards. Giles and
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Auditing Week 2 HW
a. Providing bookkeeping services to a public company.
The services were pre-approved by the audit
committee of the company.
b. Providing internal audit services to a public company
that is not an audit client.
c. Implementing a financial information system designed
by management for a private company.
d. Recommending a tax shelter to a client that is publicly
held. The services were pre-approved by the audit
e. Providing internal audit services to a public company
client with the pre-approval of the audit committee.
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This memo has been prepared in response to Mr. Butterworth’s inquiry on behalf of the independent audit team reviewing XYZ Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of ABC Company. Specifically this memo addressed the methodology used to determine deferred taxes, the procedure for reporting accounting changes and error corrections, and the rationale behind establishing XYZ Corporation as a subsidiary. Also included in this memo, as requested, is a discussion of the responsibilities of a CPA, and the differences between a financial review report and a financial audit report.
Methodology used to Determine Deferred Taxes
Deferred taxes can be one of two different types of
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auditor for Data Trappers because of the appearance that independence has been lost. The SEC themselves requires: “prospective firms cannot audit financial statements of years that they were not independent.” This is a problem because if B&T is allowed to become the auditing firm, then they would be auditing financial statements that they would have had a hand, albeit less than 1% of a hand, in creating those documents. The relationship is prohibited because they had a material indirect relationship with Data Trappers. The subsidiary B&T worked with, Data Chips, represented 1% of assets and 2% of income. Ultimately, independence in appearance to a reasonable person could be murky at
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for issuing a report on those financial statements and a report on Wal-Mart’s internal control over financial reporting. The Audit Committee monitors and oversees these processes. The Audit Committee is responsible for selecting, engaging, and overseeing Wal-Mart’s independent accountants. As part of the oversight processes, the Audit Committee regularly meets with management of the Company, the Company’s independent accountants, and the Company’s internal auditors. The Audit Committee often meets with each of these groups separately in closed sessions. Throughout the year, the Audit Committee had full access to management and the independent accountants and internal auditors for the
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to the general public regarding the truth and fairness of the information presented in the audited reports of the client's financial statements. External auditors are employees of a public accounting firm which has been engaged to conduct the audit of a particular company's financial statements (audit client). Since the general public relies heavily on the audit opinion by a public accounting firm to make investment decisions. Therefore auditors play an important role in corporate governances but they do not have direct corporate governance responsibility, but rather provides a check on the information and report aspects of the governances system. Also to check and express an expert opinion
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assertion about subject matter, that is the responsibility of another party.
Assurance services are independent professional services that improve the quality of information, or its context, for decision makers.
1-6 The phrase systematic process implies that there should be a well-planned, logical approach for conducting an audit that involves objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence.
1-7 Audit risk is defined as the risk that the auditor may unknowingly fail to appropriately modify his or her opinion on financial statements that are materially misstated (AU 320, PCAOB AS No. 12). Materiality is defined as "the magnitude of an
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We hope to gain comfort that FFC’s systems, IT practices, and risk management procedures are working properly and are operationally effective within a well-controlled IT environment and to meet the requirements that are outlined in SAS 109 and SOX Section 404 Management Assessment of Internal Controls. Considering that the FFC IT environment has a direct impact on the account balances and financial statements, it is imperative that we provide assurance over IT controls prior to the financial statement audit and assess the risk of material misstatement in the different areas of the IT environment.
Our team initially
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accounting control and regulate the rules of internal and external auditors. Now, external auditors played an important roles and added responsibilities to detect and report fraud.
Jayalakshmy (2005) presented that auditors duties in detection and prevention of the audit fraud was lack of independence, reliability, integrity, and credibility. Hence, the new roles of auditors have been identified as to increase assurance of the financial reports, to present the true and fair view, to detect and prevent fraud. Besides that, the Section 404 in Sarbanes-Oxley Act also highlighted that a public listed company must hire the external auditors to evaluate their accounting procedure and the
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,(2) Generally Accepted Auditing Standards,(3) promulgations of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and Securities and Exchange Commission, and other applicable laws, regulations, rules, and guidelines.
Mr. Friehling is a former Certified Public Accountant in New York State; he had a modest office with a total of three employees in suburban New City, NY. Mr. Madoff claimed to manage $65 billion in resources…how could what was essentially a one-person practice audit financial statements of that magnitude? The blatantly obvious answer is that Mr. Friehling could not. After accepting an engagement, the initial task for any CPA firm would be to establish an audit plan, which would
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Financial Statement Restatement
Financial Accounting/ ACC537
April 14, 2014
In this paper I will discuss the restatement of Diamond Food Inc.’s financial statements. The errors in accounting principles involved and what effect it had on financial statements. How changes affected the stockholders.
In February 2012, Diamond Foods Inc., issued a statement that they have to restate the financial statements for 2010 and 2011. Diamond Foods Inc., was forced by the audit company y to restate earnings after an extensive investigation. It was discovered that “internal controls were inadequate and that certain grower payments for the 2011 and 2010 crops were
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Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) have positioned the auditing professions to become “assurance professions.” What is the difference between assurance services, attestation services, and auditing services? What are the economic issues that drive the increased demand for assurance services? What is one assurance engagement and one attestation engagement other than an audit of financial statements? What are the differences between the two?
ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course)
For more course tutorials visit
Tutorial Purchased: 1
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WEEK 4 –INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT
5.3 What are the primary and secondary reasons for conducting an evaluation of an audit client’s internal control?
A. The auditor has two primary reasons for conducting an evaluation of a company’s internal control.
1) First, Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) requires an audit of management’s assessment of internal
controls for publicly traded companies. This type of audit is an integrated part of the financial statement audit. In some substances, the auditor issues three opinions: one on the company’s financial statements, one on management’s evaluation of their internal controls over financial reporting, and one on the effectiveness of a company’s internal
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bankruptcy | | | |
|Baptist Foundation of |Books cooked, largest nonprofit |$570 million | 165 | |
|Arizona |bankruptcy ever | | | |
|Source: “Fall from Grace,” Business Week, August 12, 2002, 54. |
What happened to the AA culture that focused on integrity and technical competence? What changed that would account for AA’s involvement in the following major financial scandals as the audit firm that failed to
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ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper
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Prepare a 700-1,050-word paper in which you explain the nature and functions of auditing. Relate your explanation to the audit functions in your organization, or an organization with which you are familiar. In your paper, be sure to address the following:
a. Describe the elements of the Generally Accepted Auditing
b. Describe how these standards apply to financial, operational, and compliance audits.
c. Explain the effect that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
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level employee need to perform the task state in job description and decision made by managers.
Question 3: Could Audit be completed soon without any qualification?
No, audit cannot be completed soon without any qualification. Auditor should qualify the Financial Statement due to several unresolved issues. A qualified report is issued when one of 2 types situation which do not comply with generally accepted accounting principles but the rest of financial statement are fairly presented.
Single deviation from GAAP- When 1 or more areas of financial statement not comply with GAAP but the financial statement is fairly presented. For example, EPF contribution for contract workers were not
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Biltrite’s Strengths and weaknesses related to the control environment of COSO principles
* The director of human resources, Laura Schroeder is in-charge for hiring and termination of the employees.
* Provides good training program to employees to lessen errors.
* The CEO, Trevor Lawton lacking independency since he was also the chair of the board.
* The chairman and controller has developed and improved internal control over financial reporting.
* Biltrite developed a code of conduct and addressed in the company’s newsletters
* The audit committee is made up of exclusively external members
The auditor may raise the following questions or
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Learning Team A Accounting Firm
Re: New SAS 115 Rules
New SAS 115 Rules
The purpose of this memo is to inform you of the new auditing rules described by SAS 115.
The Accounting Standards Board issued Statement on Accounting Standards (SAS) 115. This regulation is an amendment to and replaces SAS 112. The new regulation kept the same name as the previous regulation. The name of the regulation is Communicating Internal Control Related Matters Identified in an Audit.
Per the American Institute of CPAs website, “SAS 115 requires the auditor to make communications, in writing, to management and those charged with governance regarding
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nature and functions of auditing. Relate your explanation to the audit functions in your organization, or an organization with which you are familiar. In your paper, be sure to address the following:
a. Describe the elements of the Generally Accepted Auditing
b. Describe how these standards apply to financial, operational, and compliance audits.
c. Explain the effect that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) will have on audits of publicly traded companies.
d. Discuss the additional requirements that are placed on auditors from this Act, and the actions of the PCAOB
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON AUDITING 620 USING THE WORK OF AN AUDITOR’S EXPERT
(Effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after December 15, 2009)
Paragraph Introduction Scope of this ISA ........................................................................................ The Auditor’s Responsibility for the Audit Opinion ................................... Effective Date ............................................................................................. Objectives .................................................................................................. Definitions
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respond to WorldCom employees’ tips, neglected the computer system’s warning, not reported some abnormal behaviour to WorldCom’s audit committee and not cooperated with Ms Cynthia Cooper.
An audit committee should perform as an efficient system by concentrating on issues relevant to financial report’s integrity (CGPR, 2010). However WorldCom’s audit committee was given false information and held meeting once a year, each session lasting less than five hours. Moreover, when Ms Cynthia Cooper brought the question to the committee, the committee did not act and seemed controlled by Sullivan.
4.6.8 Company Culture (Ethical and Responsible Decision-Making)
WorldCom did not have a
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banking facilities totaling RM 1 million. The banks required the company’s Audited Financial Statements for the last two years. This was when Encik Zayed realized that the company had never been audited. Therefore, his friend had introduced an audit firm and shortly after, Aziz & Co. was engaged to perform audit and to be completed as earliest as possible to meet the bank’s requirement. The problems starts when Encik Zayed threat to replace that auditor as they want to give qualified report for the company.
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for completing the audited financial statements of the company and was convicted of obstructing justice, after it shredded documents relating to Enron’s Audit and scandal.
Many fiascos led to Andersen’s fallout. This included unethical practices, poor internal controls, and dysfunctional behaviour of corporate managers.
- Unethical practices:
o Shredding Enron’s audit documents and files on hand.
o The use of Special purposes entity (SPE) in Enron’s accounting for projects. (False profits, and hide losses and unfavourable information from Enron’s financials)
- Poor internal controls:
o No Segregation of duties and conflict of Interest
The Manager responsible for making
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Lakeside Auditing Case Study
January 27, 2011
1: An independent annual audit can provide credibility to information, and this could be very helpful for decision making. In this specific case, the owner of the Lakeside requires an independent CPA firm to perform an annual audit because the owner wants to show the public a “good-look” of its financial statements; since he would like to receive more capital by making his company public. In addition, good-looking financial statements of the company could provide good credit from the bank. To the lakeside company, the owner would like to provide audited financial statement to the bank to obtain the loan and receive
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There are many irregularities that can arise within the different accounting departments at Apollo Shoes. An audit program will be designed according to the three cycles that will be outlined below. The first cycle that will be discussed is cash, then accounts payable and finally the payroll function. These cycles will be evaluated for substantive procedures for Apollo Shoes and detect irregularities for each section and an appropriate audit program will be designed for each department.
At Apollo Shoes irregularities or cash schemes, which could occur in the audit cycle of cash include fraudulent disbursement schemes and cash receipt schemes. Fraudulent
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ACC/400 Self-Assessment Questions
Week One: Assets and Internal Controls
Note: Answers to questions appear on the last page of this document.
All the following are principles of internal control except:
Having a yearly audit by an independent auditing firm
Segregation of duties
Establishment of responsibility
Physical, mechanical and electronic controls
Control is the least effective when one person is responsible for a given task.
A company should not estimate uncollectible accounts receivable but rather write off the bad debt when sales prove uncollectible.
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1) a. Financial statements not prepared in accordance with GAAP
c. (4) Qualified opinion – GAAP departure
2) a. No departure necessary
c. (2) Unqualified opinion – explanatory paragraph
3) a. No departure necessary
c. (2) Unqualified opinion – explanatory paragraph
4) a. Non GAAP and a restricted scope
c. (6) Disclaimer
5) a. No departure necessary
c. Unqualified – modified wording
6) a. The scope of the audit has been restricted
c. Qualified opinion – scope limitation
7) a. No departure necessary
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order receipts and shown more diligence in valuing the inventories claimed by DHB.
An audit plan that would have helped detect the fraud would include a thorough evaluation of the company’s inventories and inventory valuation methods. This would include receipts of all purchases to successfully determine the value of all inventories. I would also request documentation proving the quantities of remaining inventories at period end. This would allow for an accurate representation of cost of goods sold.
Key Types of Audit Evidence to Execute Plan and Evaluate Evidence
According Zhao & Harding (2013), “Since both financial statement representations and information systems evidence
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June 4, 2012
A subsidiary is its own legal entity that is governed by a board of directors. For independence, the subsidiary corporation has its own liability and is separate from the parent corporation for taxation and regulatory guidance from state and federal agencies. Control over the subsidiary is maintained by the parent corporation holding more than fifty-percent shareholder value and voting rights in the subsidiary charter.
The professional responsibilities of the certified public accountant (CPA) are to provide assurance services and attestation services that include an audit and review of historical financial statements and
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organisation, their major role is to interpret accounts, standards; ensure that efficiency and operations internal control system of the company; provide advices to management when the f/s is not transparency (ensuring true and fair of F/S); should have communicate with the top management and external auditors; could act as whistleblower when they have strong ground to believe they are right; should ensure the book of account is complete
two roles for internal audit:
* to provide an independent assurance service to the board, audit committee and management, focusing on reviewing the effectiveness of the governance, risk management and control processes that management has put into