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NASDAQ with a market capitalization of $42.55 billion as at 14th May 2012. The company was founded in the year 2000 and is headquartered in Beijing China (Yahoo finance, 2012a)
Dendreon Corporation; this is accompany that is listed under the Biotechnology industry of the NASDAQ Stock Exchange whose main line of business is the engaging in the discovery, development and commercialization of novel therapeutics to assist in the treatment of cancer patients. The company is one of the largest Biotechnology companies under the NASDAQ Stock Exchange with a market capitalization of $1.34 billion as at 14th May 2012. The company was founded in 1992 and its headquarters are in Seattle Washington (Yahoo
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Department of Business Administration
Program – MBA Semester –Autumn 2013
Course Title: Investment Analysis and portfolio Mgt.
Course Teacher: Md. Azizur Rahman (Assistant Professor of Finance)
Lesson Plan for Midterm
|CHAPTER| |Investment, The Importance of Financial Investments, Investment Management Process, Measures of |
|1 | |Return and Risk, Determinants of Required Rates of Return, Relationship between Risk and Return. |
| |The Investment Setting |Historical Risk and Return Measurement, Investment Life Cycle and Portfolio Management
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The main purpose of studying finance is to gain an understanding of the financial performance of a company, corporation or industry. By looking at a company's financial performance, decisions can be made about many things by many different players. Corporations are rated by different agencies that examine financial records and potential for growth. Fitch ratings are a good example of this. My employer has an A++ Fitch rating. This high rating allows a non-profit company to borrow money at lower interest rates. In a publicly held company, which is one that has shareholders, the main concern is to keep the shareholders happy. Shareholders infuse corporations they believe in (usually based on
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Week 3 Individual Work
Perform Time Value Money Calculations
Assignment Instructions |
To complete this assignment: 1. Answer all of the questions below in the space provided. 2. Reflect on the information presented in this week’s lesson and provide an insightful response to each question writing no more than two paragraphs. |
Save and Submit to Dropbox |
1. Save your work as a Microsoft Word 2010 (.docx) file that includes your name, course code, and title in the file name. For example: JaneSmith_FIN1103_Week3.docx. 2. To submit your assignment, go to the Dropbox and click "Submit Assignment." 3. Click on the drop-down menu to select the Week 3
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CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF SEVERE ACUTE
A Term Paper(Reaction Paper)
In partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements of business finance
In the M.B.A Program
Yao yu long
1ST Semester AY 2012
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Yahoo Finance. Assume the risk free rate to be 3% and the market risk premium to be 4%.
a. What is the cost of common equity? (5 pts)
b. Explain the advantages and disadvantages to use the CAPM model as the method to compute the cost of common equity. Compare and contrast this method with the dividend growth model approach. (10 pts)
3. Compute the cost of preferred equity assuming the dividend paid for preferred stock is $2.93 and the current value of the stock is $50 per share.
a. What is the cost of preferred equity? (5 pts)
b. Is there any other method to compute this cost? Explain. (5 pts)
4. Assuming that the market value weights of these capital sources are 30
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Bachelor of Business
(Incorporating Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate in Business)
Managerial Finance (ACCT 706)
Semester Two, 2016
Assignment # 2
Week 8, 03/05/16, 12.00 noon
25% of the final grade
Approximately 2,000 – 3,000 words excluding appendices
Submission: Students are expected to submit a hard copy of the assignment along with
Arion generated barcoded assignment cover sheet in the drop box located in
WF building (ground floor). All assignments should be submitted via turnitin
and a turnitin report should accompany the assignment (Please note: Turnitin
submission should precede
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MINI CASE –
Assume that you have just been hired as a business manager of PizzaPalace, a regional pizza restaurant chain. The company’s EBIT was $50 million last year and is not expected to grow. The firm is currently financed completely with equity, and it has 10 million shares outstanding. When you took your corporate finance course, your instructor stated that most firms’ owners would be financially better off if the firms used some debt. When you suggested this to your new boss, he encouraged you to pursue the idea. As a first step, assume that you obtained from the firm’s investment banker the following
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(finance cost) and hence no further adjustment is required in its respect in the dividend cover calculation.
Under task 7, the DCR is just over 1.5 i.e. 1.65 times which indicates that the company might not be able to maintain the present level of dividends in case of adverse variation in profit in the future
SIGNIFICANCE AND INTERPRETATION
Dividend Coverage is a measure of the ability of an organization to pay dividends. Although dividend payments are usually discretionary, companies normally seek to maintain a reasonable level of dividend payout in line with the market expectations. Generally, companies would aim to sustain a dividend cover of at least 2 times in order to avail adequate
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Stephen A. Ross, Franco Modigliani Professor of Finance and Economics, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Consulting Editor Financial Management Adair Excel Applications for Corporate Finance First Edition Block and Hirt Foundations of Financial Management Thirteenth Edition Brealey, Myers, and Allen Principles of Corporate Finance Ninth Edition Brealey, Myers, and Allen Principles of Corporate Finance, Concise Edition First Edition Brealey, Myers, and Marcus Fundamentals of Corporate Finance Sixth Edition Brooks FinGame Online 5.0 Bruner Case Studies in Finance: Managing for Corporate Value Creation Fifth Edition Chew The New Corporate Finance: Where Theory
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Global Finance, Inc. is an international organization with expansions in many states. In every state, the company has a number of sites and each site has several workers and customers. Offices are interconnected to each other and to the host organization. As an international organization, Global Finance, Inc. requires a robust network that can support its daily operations, a secure network system and efficient network management strategies. Normally, network choices rely on the company budget, network coverage, and internal and external regulations. Effective network security requires constant upgrades and close monitoring to ensure possible loopholes are sealed in time.
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Final Exam: Essay questions
Instructions: Choose five questions from the list of the questions below and give it
a thoughtful answer. Please formulate your answers in your own words and give
references when needed. You may look up in textbooks in the library or check
relevant websites to answer. Each question is to be answered fully but concisely,
each answer should not be exceeding 200 words per question.
The deadline to hand in the essay is January 7th, 2016
1. Describe the characteristics of a Multinational Corporation, any
advantages/drawbacks, and give examples. What reasons does the author of
your text give for becoming a multinational
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Corporate Finance, 9/e
Stephen A. Ross, Massachussetts Institute of Technology
Randolph W. Westerfield, University of Southern California
Jeffrey F. Jaffe, University of Pennsylvania
Copyright year: 2010
Table of Contents
PART I: Overview
1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 1
1.1 | What Is Corporate Finance? | 1 |
| The Balance Sheet Model of the Firm | 1 |
| The Financial Manager | 3 |
1.2 | The Corporate Firm | 4 |
| The Sole Proprietorship | 4 |
| The Partnership | 4 |
| The Corporation | 5 |
| A Corporation by Another Name . . . | 7 |
1.3 | The Importance of Cash Flows | 7 |
1.4 | The Goal of Financial Management | 10
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Associate Level Material
Personal Financial Planning Worksheet
Directions: Based on your readings and discussions in class this week, answer the following questions completely.
The process of creating a detailed plan to meet your financial needs and prepare for the future is called:
Personal financial planning.
Collecting financial information.
Which of the following is not one of the five major steps of the financial planning process?
Analyze your current finances.
Establish and implement your plan.
Collect and organize your financial information.
Reevaluate and revise your plan as needed.
Which phase in life is
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May 10, 2015
U.S International Debt
Please look at the International part of the U.S. Government debt and discuss, 1) why the country has had to rely on International lenders, 2) why the situation with the International lenders may have caused the U.S. Federal Reserve System to initiate Quantitative Easing, and 3) give your opinion of the possible future state of the U.S. economy as it relies on International lenders. This future state should cover government issues, corporate issues, and individual issues.
The history of international lending to developing countries shows surges of lending and recurrent financial crisis. Consequently, international lenders have
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FIN515 Homework1 Mini case
(a) Corporate Finance
Investors provide enough funding for corporations to make quality goods and services that are highly valued by costumers and enables growth of the corporation. So managers’ primary goal is to generate enough cash to distribute compensation to investors. Understanding corporate finance allows managers to make monetary decisions that achieve the goal of adding value for investors and thus contribute to a company’s competitiveness and profitability in long run.
(b) Organizational Forms
There are three types of organizational forms for companies to choose based on different expected speed of growth and the amount of
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represented by their Central Banks intervene in the foreign exchange market? 5 points.
Governments represented by their central bank intervene in the foreign exchange market to control the value of its currency, build reserves, stabilize the exchange rate, correct any misalignments of the exchange rate, provide liquidity in their markets, and to decrease exchange rate volatility. Thus, they intervene because changes in the exchange rates that occur can affect the health of their markets and financial systems as well as inflation and economic growth, and they of course don't want that.
4. What is fundamental analysis in macroeconomics, not finance?
Fundamental analysis (in macroeconomics) looks to measure the value of an investment by examining related economic factors. These factors include rate of inflation, interest rates, GDP rate, and unemployment level. Fundamental analysts assess the overall conditions of an economy to understand any and all factors that may affect the value of an investment.
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Nottingham University Business School
MBA (Finance) Programme
N1DM28 International Finance
Discussion and analysis of the movement in the value of US dollar against the Japanese Yen from 2002 to 2011
Kala Premarani Perumal
Student ID: UNIMKL 010085
This paper is undertaken to discuss and analyse the exchange rate movements in the value of US dollar (USD) against the Japanese Yen (JPY) from 2002 to 2011. We could evaluate based on the exchange rates, that as an overall the JPY has appreciated against USD during this phase. The JPY had appreciated by 57% over these years (average 2002: ¥125.31/$ to average 2011: ¥79.72/$). The paper identifies
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equalled state aid, and as Keynesian ideas came into disrepute due to stagflation. In 1982 when Mexico suspended its external debt service, it marked the beginning of the debt crisis throughout the developing world; banks severely limited lending to developing nations.
The IMF and the World Bank supported stock market development not solely on the grounds of ideology but rather that the stock market is a natural outgrowth of a developing financial sector as long-term economic growth proceeds and also as a criticism of early development efforts through Development Finance Institutes (DFI) . These DFI’s had difficulties during the 1970s economic crisis of the third world. Singh cites the World
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worthwhile in the long run, as diversification of services may be a necessary goal for survival.
Regulatory restrictions have been loosened, allowing savings institutions to offer commercial loans and consumer loans. The potential risk to savings institutions that now provide such loans is that they improperly assess creditworthiness due to inexperience.
5. Describe the liquidity and credit risk of savings institutions, and discuss how each is managed.
Savings institutions experience liquidity risk since they commonly use short-term liabilities to finance long-term assets. They commonly increase their liabilities rather than reduce their assets in order to increase liquidity
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Every business objective is to make profits and reduce costs as much as possible. Most business owners believe that to realize high profits, they need to increase their sales. However, for the sales to increase there must be corresponding increase in the costs since there will be increased amount of work. Increased costs however can be curtailed. Another way that the costs can be reduced is by controlling them.
Controlling variable costs
Variable costs change with the number of products that are produced for sale. Example of these costs
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Case For Project - Cost Analysis*
An equipment acquisition proposal was being considered by a large health care organization. The array machine will enable the hospital to perform autoimmunity tests (for immunoglobulins G, M, and A and complements C3 and C4) in-house rather than sending them to a reference laboratory. Test turnaround time is expected to decrease by 2 days. The array machine costs $50,000, with a useful life of 5 years. The depreciation schedule will be $10,000/year.
The expected volume for tests is one of each of the five autoimmunity tests per day. Having the tests done by the reference laboratory costs the hospital an average of $10/test. The hospital's average charge
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Compensation refers to the organizations entire reward package, including not only financial rewards and benefits but also non tangible benefits such as securities. It includes to all forms of pay or rewards going to workers and arising from their employment. Once workers have done their jobs and been appraised, they expect to be paid. Each and every worker in an organization works for money or incentives. So their first and foremost expectation from the organization is to earn money or appropriate compensation. Compensation is the most important part or tool of any organization. Because, human body works for earning something. And this earning policy
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Assignment on Stock Exchanges of Bangladesh
In: Business and Management
Assignment on Stock Exchanges of Bangladesh
CHITTAGONG STOCK EXCHANGE:
“Founder members of the proposed Chittagong Stock Exchange approached the Bangladesh Government in January 1995 and obtained the permission of the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 12, 1995 for establishing the country's second stock exchange.
The Exchange comprised of twelve Board members, presided by Mr. Amir Khosru Mahmud Chowdhury (MP) and run by an independent secretariat from the very first day of its inception. CSE was formally opened by then Hon'ble Prime Minister of Bangladesh on November 4, 1995
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Quiz 3 – A
Variance of a portfolio of two assets:
Equation of the Capital Allocation Line:
σp2 = x2 σ12 (1-x)2 σ22 +2x(1-x)ρ1,2 σ1 σ2
E[rP] = rf +( E[r1]- rf) σP/ σ1
Weight of asset 1 in the minimum variance portfolio with 2 assets:
x1min = σ2(σ2 – ρ1,2 σ1)/( σ12 + σ22 – 2ρ1,2σ1 σ2)
a) If you dispose of many positively correlated assets (that is, Cov(ri ,rj)>0 for all couples of assets i
and j), then by buying strictly positive amount of each asset, you can:
Obtain a portfolio that is risk-free.
Obtain a portfolio that is free from systematic risk.
Obtain a portfolio that is free from
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Risk and Rates of Return
Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions
8-1 a. No, it is not riskless. The portfolio would be free of default risk and liquidity risk, but inflation could erode the portfolio’s purchasing power. If the actual inflation rate is greater than that expected, interest rates in general will rise to incorporate a larger inflation premium (IP) and—as we saw in Chapter 6—the value of the portfolio would decline.
b. No, you would be subject to reinvestment risk. You might expect to “roll over” the Treasury bills at a constant (or even increasing) rate of interest, but if interest rates fall, your investment income will decrease.
c. A U.S. government-backed
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The Developing Manager
The Developing Manager
The efficient management of any organization is the central driver of the constant achievement of the business and it is influenced by both the internal and external factors of the organization. It is vital that the Top Management aims to display successful leadership & management in organisation concurrently and in view of other duties & responsibilities. The Report aims to enhance the understanding regarding leadership & Managerial skills. This report will discuss the practices and management principles, will perform the review regarding potential as prospective manager
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EXPOSURE DRAFT “REVENUE FROM CONTRACTS WITH CUSTOMERS”
Honest & Blonde
7 October 2014
Exposure Draft, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”
It is our pleasure to provide our response and comments on the new exposure draft, which is on “revenue from contracts with customers” that was published by the FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) in the year 2011. TeleFones4U being one of the biggest telecommunication industry, it is with our great concern to bring your attention to some of the critical points in the new exposure draft. One of the concerns is based on the impact of
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2. Data -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
3. Methodology ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
4. Results ------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
5. Conclusion ---------------------------------------------------------------------------6
6. Reference ----------------------------------------------------------------------------10
Oil is an important source of energy in the
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LEASE OR FINANCE??
In today’s competitive economy, a vehicle is no longer considered a luxury anymore, but rather a necessity. There are not very many cities in the U.S. where you can live without car. I live in Orlando, Florida and dependable transportation is a mandatory expense. If you want to buy a new car, the cheapest way to buy a car is to pay cash for it. By paying cash you will avoid any finance charges. However, there are not very many people have thirty to fifty thousand dollars to spend on the vehicle. Lease or finance are two main options if you don’t have a lot of cash available to spend on the car. I have chosen the BMW and Infinity dealership to do my analysis. I picked
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Chp 1 Questions: (pg 23-4)
1. a. What are some of the industries in the healthcare sector?
Healthcare services (ex. hospitals), Health insurance (makes most of the payments to the health service providers), Medical equipment and supplies (maker of medical/diagnostic equipment), Pharmaceuticals and biotechnology (develop/market drugs/therapeutics), and "other" (which includes consulting, educational, government, and research agencies)
b. What is meant by the term healthcare ﬁnance as used in this book?
Healthcare Finance consists of both the accounting (which creates and provides useful operations and financial status information to interested internal and external parties
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A bank acts as an intermediary between savers and borrowers and manages the whole process by paying equity and cash to savers and cash to net borrowers and in this process the bank earns its profit.
A bank is a financial institution and a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels those deposits into lending activities, either directly or through capital markets. A bank connects customers that have capital deficits to customers with capital surpluses. So bank is a very important part and identity of this whole transaction phenomenon. The TED Spread is the difference between the interest rates on interbank loans and on short-term U.S. government debt ("T-bills"). TED is an
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Practice Questions for Final Exam
1. If a firm issues no new equity, book value will _______________________.
A) decrease each year by the amount of retained earnings
B) decrease each year by the amount of retained earnings minus depreciation on fixed assets
C) increase each year by the amount of retained earnings
D) increase each year by the amount of retained earnings plus depreciation on fixed assets
2. A firm has a ROE of 20% and a market-to-book ratio of 2.38. Its P/E ratio is __________.
3. Rose Hill Trading
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Within a limited partnership context, what are the conditions on a limited partner?
A) There is a limit to the amount of capital that a limited partner can contribute, as mandated by law.
B) There is a limit to the number of limited partners that the firm may take on as investors.
C) The limited partner must remain a low level employee and cannot ever serve in a managerial role in the firm.
D) A limited partner may not take any active role in the operation of the business.
Points Earned: | 4.0/4.0 | |
Correct Answer(s): | D |
Straw Corp has an operating profit of $1,200 produced from $20,000 in total assets. If Straw has no interest expense and currently pays 35% of
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Refer to P&G's financial statements and the accompanying notes to answer the following questions. (a) What alternative formats could P&G have adopted for its balance sheet? Which format did it adopt? (b) Identify the various techniques of disclosure P&G might have used to disclose additional pertinent financial information. Which technique does it use in its financials? (c) In what classifications are P&G's investments reported? What valuation basis does P&G use to report its investments? How much working capital did P&G have on June 30, 2007? On June 30, 2006? (d) What were P&G's cash flows from its operating, investing, and financing activities for 2007? What were its trends in net cash
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-Cash flows from owning a share of stock come in the form of future dividends
-Share of common stock with a constant dividend
-dividend grows at a steady rate
-Dividend growth model
-model that determines the current price of a stock by its dividend next period divided by discount rate minus the dividend growth rate
-If the growth rate is bigger than the discount rate, then the present value of the dividend gets bigger and bigger
-allows for supernormal growth rates over some finite length of time
-stocks expected cash dividend divided by its current price.
-similar to current yield on a bond
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| | |
Save the file in your course folder, and name it with Assignment, the section number, and your first initial and last name. For example, Jessie Robinson's assignment 1R for Section 1 would be named Assignment1JRobinson.
Type the answers to the assignment's questions. Use complete sentences unless the question says otherwise. You will have more than one day to complete an assignment. At the end of each day, be sure to save your progress.
Review Lesson 4 of the Course Overview for
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. Nick Browns and Daisy both had income in 2012. Nick is a doctor for Royal hospital and made $135,000 in wages while Daisy worked as a banker and also earned annual salary of $75,000. The Browns received $4,500 in interest on savings account. They had invested in two types of bonds: 20-year corporate bond from Google and state of Pennsylvania revenue bond. During the year 2012, they received interest income from these two bonds, $1,800 from Google and $1,500 on the state bond. At the moment Nick is still paying for his student loan and he paid $4,500 in interest on his student loan in 2012 and Daisy is taking a course in MBA specialized in Banking Operation as she desired to get to higher
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Re: Global Equity Markets: The Case of Royal Dutch and Shell
Structure: The Royal Dutch/Shell Group is different because it appears that it is functioning as a single company instead of two separate companies. Yet, they are functioning as two separate companies. The Shell Company in the Netherlands, the Shell Company in the UK and the Shell Petroleum Company in the USA all appear to be maintaining their own identities in their respective countries. The Royal Dutch and Shell Company share equally in the Shell Company in the Netherlands, The Shell Company in the UK and the Shell Company in the U.S. They are not separate companies since they are linked by corporate charter. There is a
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Dozier Hedging Alternatives
Forward Market Hedge:
Dozier would purchase U.S. dollars under a forward contract. The contract would obligate Dozier to pay £1,057,500 in exchange for
£1,057,500 x 1.4198 $/£ = $1,501,438.50
assuming the transaction was at the quoted 3-month forward rate in Exhibit 4.
Relative to the value of the contract at the current exchange rate,
£1,057,500 x 1.4370 $/£ = $1,519,627.50
Dozier would accepting a reduction in the revenue from the contract of
$1,519,627.50 - $1,501,438.50 = $18,198.00 or
$18,198 / $1,519,627.50 = 1.20%
Money Market Hedge:
In this case, Dozier would borrow an amount of British pounds that would obligate
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Module 2 SLP Assignment
March 6, 2014
Buying a $100,000.00 Michael Kor's Corporate Bond
The purpose of this second SLP's assignment is to take the previously learned concepts of Time Value of money and then decide how much I would personally be willing to pay for a $100,000.00 bond from Michael Kor's. I will explain my thought process by taking into consideration my own personal risk preferences, interest rates, inflation and what the probability of being paid back might be.
Next, a discussion about what the discount rate for $100,000.00 Kor's bond will be explained by using the present value formula from the background readings . In addition to that two other
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$228,995,945.00. People love numbers. $68,577,000. To this day they are the simplest and easiest way to tell how anything is doing. 85. Take a quick look at a company’s stock price, a persons salary or how many games a team has won and you can instantly have a fairly accurate idea if they are doing well. 96. Through all the advances in technology and science numbers still are the first things that people go to when they are trying to decide on the value of just about anything. Even more so people love numbers that are easy and straightforward like the ones I have already given. Those numbers do not seem like anything other then numbers put in a paragraph for effect. But they go
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Introduction to Multinational Companies (MNC’s):
The word MNC’s is the short form of Multinational Corporation. As its name, MNC’s is a corporation spreads out one nation to another. Business involve into Multinational Corporation, so that they can capitalize on opportunities. The financial managers must be able to detect opportunities, asset exposure to risk and manage the risk.
Definition of Multinational Companies (MNC’s):
A corporation that has facilities and other assets in at least one country beside its home country is considered as Multinational Corporation. Such companies have offices and/or factories in different countries and usually have a centralized head office where they
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2011 CF forecast for LL requested by bank (Finance)
Our 2011 cash flow forecast assumes that the union will accept LL’s revised offer in June and the strike was only for April, 2010 which will not affect fiscal 2011 since the offer would be retroactive to April 30, 2010. Our forecast also assumes that MRL’s cash flows are excluded.
Our calculations are in APPENDIX. It shows that cash flow for 2011 is forecasted to be $8,646,000. Furthermore, cash flow is expected to decrease steadily in 2012 and beyond. It is doubtful that LL can remain as a going concern.
Our calculations are based on Mark’s assumptions about sales and operating costs reverting back to 2009 levels, as well as
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On the balance sheet under Fixed Assets, you find Gross Block, Accumulated Depreciation and Net Block. Net Block is simply Gross Block minus Accumulated Depreciation. Also, there is a depreciation expense entry in the income statement. Using these, can you think of a ratio which would tell the average age of the company’s fixed assets?
Average age of the company’s fixed assets
= Accumulated Depreciation / Depreciation Expense
From a valuation standpoint, a very widely used ratio is the price to earnings ratio (P/E). This is the ratio of the market cap to the last year’s reported earnings of the company. There is another very widely used ratio called Enterprise Value by EBITDA
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Chap. 14 Questions 14-1, 14-3, 14-4
Chap. 15 Questions 15-12A, 15-13A
What are financial markets? What function do they perform? How would an economy be worse off without them?
Financial markets report price for each good; they are institutions and procedures that facilitate transactions in all types of financial claims (securities).
Each financial market performs a different function. Such as the stock markets primary function is to provide a platform for investors to buy shares of ownership of a public corporation which are sold to investors to allow the companies to raise a lot of cash at once. The investors profit when the
1295 words - 6 pages
Lucy Hawkins and Andy Chen are facing an important decision. After having discussed different financial scenarios into the wee hours of the morning, the two computer engineers felt it was time to finalize their cash flow projections and move to the next stage – decide which of two possible projects they should undertake.
Both had a bachelor degree in engineering and had put in several years as maintenance engineers in a large chip manufacturing company. About six months ago, they were able to exercise their first stock options. That was when they decided to quit their safe, steady job and pursue their dreams of starting a venture of their own. In their spare time, almost as a hobby, they
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Nowadays, adolescents rashly spend most of their money away without any financial planning. Over 90% of the adolescent’s parents are concerned about their children’s financial problems such as overspending and budget deficits.(1) According to the research of 00000, the adolescents’ knowledge of money management was decreased from 51% in 2007 to 35% in 2011.(8) I presume that budgeting can control income and expenses, therefore it would help the adolescents to achieve their financial goal. By having a good budget, adolescents can become aware of their financial situation and develop a spending plan to reach the financial goal in the future.(0) Hence, my topic is budgeting for