* Selim III was overthrown and European powers began looking for ways to take the lands.
* Geopolitics is the interest of taking lands because of its strategic positioning, geopolitics played an important role in Ottoman lands
* Powers were very interested in Ottoman lands since it would control the Mediterranean and Atlantic sea trade. Merchants had to go through these lands.
* The discovery of oil in Persia and Arabian Peninsula created more tension around this area
Russia and Crimean War
* Russia wanted to gain the Ottoman lands because of its grain ...view middle of the document...
* The Russians had helped the Slavic people who were rebelling against the Ottomans at the time
* Ottomans lost Romania, Montenegro, Cyprus, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Bulgaria.
Geopolitics lands create problems again
* Great Britain and Russia fight over Muslim Lands
* Great Game was the war over India, which were currently Britain’s most profitable colonies.
* Russia wanted to gain India’s’ wealth but the British had successfully defended.
* After successfully defending, the British actually tried to spread its empire into Afghanistan.
* Afghanistan was familiar with powers trying to invade the kingdom. Great Britain retreated after decades.
Egypt makes reforms
* Seeing how powerful other nations were Egypt had to adapt.
* Egypt made political and social reforms
* Military and economic reforms followed.
* Ottoman had sent Muhammad Ali to govern Egypt but Muhammad Ali broke away
* Muhammad Ali fought battles in order to gain Syria and Arabia.
* Muhammad Ali made several reforms in military and in the economy.
* He directed his lands to grow cash crops which brought Egypt into the international marketplace
* Continuing his grandfathers’ reforms, Isma’il supported the construction of Suez Canal.
* Suez canal was a waterway that connected the Red Sea and the Mediterranean