Drawing on the theories and concepts of family influences on athletic development presented in Study topic 2, discuss how the Romeao parents can promote an effective environment for their children’s athletic development.
In answering the question above I will first reflect upon the family unit and then go on to discuss the support currently offered by the parents of the Romeao children and how this support may affect the children’s athletic psychological development. I will draw upon the concepts of achievement theory (Dweck, 1999 and Nicholls, 1984, 1989) and Eccles (Eccles et al 1983, Eccles 1993) expectancy-value theory discussing the family influences on the ...view middle of the document...
Good. Again, drawing on Eccles research we can argue that there is an indication of ‘parental gender stereotyping’, where Tony very clearly defines gymnastics is for his girls and boxing is for his boys. Absolutely. Tony then takes an active part with Romeo whereas Venus goes to a gym club and has a gymnastics coach. Drawing upon the studies of Cutrona and Russell (1990), who stipulate four dimensions of sport-relevant social support, it can be argued that Tony supports his son through elements of all four support theories; emotional support (providing comfort and security), esteem support (enhancing sense of competence and self-esteem), information support (providing advice or guidance) and tangible support (providing concrete instrumental assistance), but only offers Venus esteem support in his showing his pleasure at her good results and information support in the nutritional and training advise he gives. The mother and coach provides the rest.
I feel Tony needs to empower his children more and create a more extrinsic environment where the children will have some say in their sporting future. Why? (according to the theory and the associated research). As thy get older they will be faced with sibling competition too. For Romeo, he may become a role model to his younger brother but may also have to share the support of his father which is singularly his presently. For Venus, she is already a role model to both Angel and Isis, though Angel seems to express less desire to commit to the same punishing schedule she sees her sister adopt. For Tony Romeao, statistics (whose?) suggest he may find his younger children more successful if given the same motivational influences as studies (such as)have shown younger siblings out perform their older brothers as sisters though in the case of Jennifer Ennis this proved unfounded.
When Venus was 11 she was expected to compete in the 2012 Olympics at the age of 15. From an achievement theory perspective (Dweck, 1999; Nicholls, 1984, 1989) I felt that Venus still had an undifferentiated conception of ability (reference) although she is a little old for this theory to be applied to her; whilst Tony Romeao insists he did not choose the sport of gymnastics for his daughter he does make it clear he expects her to achieve an elite status and compete at an Olympic level. He has taken the role of initiator in her development. It appears her enjoyment is enhanced by her winning or at least, being well placed in a competition and getting her father’s approval for doing well. I feel Venus is more biased towards an ego orientation as results seem to matter to her, maybe as good results please her father and will help to realise his expectations. This fits with Dwecks (Dweck, 1999; Nicholls, 1984, 1989) theory that results matter to an ego –orientated perception in goal-profiling. The influence of her father’s opinion is countered a little when Venus expresses to her mother that her coach thought her range...