This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Worms Essay

917 words - 4 pages

Bio 54


Filarial Worms I : Structure, Infection, & Disease
Andrew G. Campbell, Ph.D.

Parasitic Filarial Worms - Background
• Thread-like worms transmitted by insect vectors (flies and mosquitoes) • collectively infect AT LEAST 100 million worldwide • considered major obstacles to development in endemic countries • "major players" – Wuchereria bancrofti / Brugia malayi lymphatic filariasis – Onchocerca volvulus - river blindness – Loa loa - loaiasis


Today’s Lecture
•Taxonomy •Lymphatic Filariae •Nonlymphatic Filariae •Disease •Diagnosis, Treatment, & Control


ANIMALIA NEMATODA ...view middle of the document...

1 year)


Adult worms
• mature within 1 year from infectious larvae • mature sizes
– females: 8 cm (3 inches) by 0.3 mm – males: 4 cm (1.5 inches) by 0.1 mm

• live within the lumen of lymph vessels, where they pair and produce microfilariae • continue shedding microfilariae for at least 4 years (possibly as long as 40 years!)

W. bancrofti adult male, x4.

Microfilariae (MF)
• extremely small in comparison to adults (approx. 0.3 mm vs. 4-8 cm) • produced by actively mating adult pair and migrate to bloodstream • can survive in the host for as long as 1.5 years • must be ingested by mosquito in order to continue development • develop, but do not multiply, in the insect vector • in most cases nocturnally periodic

W. bancrofti microfilaria


Microfilarial (MF) periodicity
• MF numbers in the blood of humans are typically high at night and low/absent during the day • possible basis for periodicity – oxygen tension of the peripheral blood? – parasite circadian rhythm? experiments that reverse sleeping patterns or manipulate O2 levels alter MF periodicity • optimal parasite acquisition occurs when microfilariae peak numbers coincide with female mosquito feeding patterns • when not in peripheral blood, microfilariae aggregate in lung capillaries

Disease caused by lymphatic filariae
• presence of adult worms in lymphatics causes inflammation, dilation of the vessel, and some obstruction of lymph flow • immune responses are ellicited by dead and dying worms, leading to fibrosis of the vessel wall with subsequent blockage of lymph flow (lymphedema) • lymphedema can lead to disfiguring abnormalities such as elephantiasis (enlargement of affected organs) • it is generally thought that development of elephantiasis requires repeated and protracted infection

Cross section of lymph vessel occupied by adult W. bancrofti ,x54


Examples of severe Elephantiasis

Several cases of megascrotum


Disease caused by microfilariae
• microfilariae of lymphatic filariae do not appear to be very immunostimulatory and thus are not believed to be responsible for pathology in most infected persons • some persons develop a hypersensitivity syndrome known...

Other assignments on Worms

Life Essay

336 words - 2 pages diplococci. Mycobaacterium leprae doesn't stain with gram stain but rather stains with carbol fuchsin as well as it takes several weeks for the sample to mature or the bacteria to grow. Trponema palladium also needs a special stain like deterle stain. Haemophilus influenzae on the other hand can be .2 to .8 um and can be long like worms or even dots. The bacteria grew in both the blood agar and the chocolate agar because it grows when it has factors

Secutiry Threats Essay

452 words - 2 pages classified into outside and inside threats. Organization may be exposed to viruses and worms as a result of employees not following certain practices or procedures. Intruders are also a big security threat—they hack into large networks to steal private information like social security numbers or credit card account information. Closely related to the intruder security threats are the “Insiders” who are more dangerous in many respects than

Security Requirements And Possible Risks

1019 words - 5 pages vulnerable to hacking in various ways, such as outer and inner attacks. Without placing security measures, as mention earlier firewalls and passwords, hacking becomes much easier. This could cause the loss and/or theft of personal information contained in the database. If this happened it could damage potentially the Huffman Trucking brand. Database corruption can take on many forms, but the most common would that of worms and viruses. Worms


1019 words - 5 pages ) Computer Security Virus and worms : These are the computer programme which malfunction the computer system. Virus requires a carrier while worms does this by itself. Worm does not requires any carrier. Spoofing : Through this, deceiving the computer users and making the fool. Intrusion or Hacking : If a computer is used and controlled by unauthorised users then it is called hacking and who does this is called hacker


830 words - 4 pages … ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FINAL EXAM ABC HEALTHCARE CASE BACKGROUND Healthcare companies, like ABC Healthcare, that operate as for-profit entities, are facing a multitude of challenges. The regulatory environment is becoming more restrictive, viruses and worms are growing more pervasive and damaging, and ABC Heathcare’s stakeholders are demanding more flexible access to their systems. The healthcare industry is

Online World

3742 words - 15 pages is that it can attack the storage and spoils saved data Virus is of two types basically. Monomorphic and polymorphic. Polymorphic is more powerful as it can change its own code thus It becomes hard to identify. Worms Worms are also a malicious piece of computer program which has the characteristic of propagation and spreads itself to multiple computer or devices in a network. It replicates itself continuously and keeps on spreading on the

Western Civil

799 words - 4 pages also considered a heretic by the state. Its issue’s like this that slowly lead to the dissolve or separation of religious and political powers. A Prime example of the complication between the tie of these two powers was the excommunication of Martin Luther, this occurs during the Dict of Worms around 1521. Martin Luther had different views on the catholic religion and he tried to express them to the people in his 95 theses. The catholic leaders

Importance Of Security Of Personal Belongingsg

642 words - 3 pages is used for business and not for personal pleasure or personal business, to protect this size of a network from viruses and worms, there will be an email and file extension filtering program that scans through the Los Angeles central location. In closing I would like to quote that everyone in the world makes mistakes and the only way we can go about fixing this error is by keeping everyone in check even if it seems mundane or annoying

Multi-Layers Security

1139 words - 5 pages towards a multi-layered defense. To develop a plan, the company must assess its most important assets, identify vulnerabilities as well as the infrastructure and technology most appropriate for mitigating risk, then implement a strategy for putting the plan into action. Email is a prime example.  It has become a critical business communications tool and is also a primary conduit for malicious code. Protecting email against viruses, worms

Sexual Harassment In The Workplace

1105 words - 5 pages -related nature.Displaying sexually suggestive objects, pictures, or posters. Playing sexually suggestive music. Workplace harassment affects both women and men in every walk of life, in every level of employment. And yet, it is one of those topics we often avoid discussing frankly for fear of "opening up a can of worms." Let's talk about it - with Management, Human Resources, and staff in healthcare. As a recent victim of "simple

Keeping Information Secure

1741 words - 7 pages all of your computers. Installing a software firewall is important in preventing worms from spreading in your network. A worm is like a virus, but instead of using files or emails to spread, it will exploit vulnerabilities in networked computers. Worms are often so effective that every computer on your network can be infected in minutes. Fraud Fraud means to pretend you are someone else and use their money, accounts to buy things or

Similar Documents

Computer Viruses Essay

1026 words - 5 pages to correct these vulnerabilities. The Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center is a good resource. The typical network attacks that put computers at risk are: viruses, worms, spoofing, Trojan horses and denial of service attacks. Every unprotected computer is vulnerable to a computer virus. Once the virus is in the computer it can spread throughout, infecting other files and potentially damaging the operating system itself. A

Cyber Security Essay

317 words - 2 pages &Worms/ Sniffing Traffic Social Engineering / Session Hijacking /Exploiting web servers /Cryptography/ Metaspoit Security: VPN, Checkpoint, Juniper Firewall,Honeypots,IDS , Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Ideally ITIL incident management, problem management and change management Behavior-excellent communicator, professional, motivated, analytical thinker PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE______________________________________________ Royal Air

Project Part 2 It Security Essay

953 words - 4 pages Classification Description: Malicious Code and Activity Task Base on the premise that there is a mix of computers running Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Mac OS X, you must research and devise a plan to thwart malicious code and activity by implementing countermeasures and prevention techniques for dealing with viruses, worms, logic bombs, Trojan horses, and other related forms of intentionally created deviant code

Ceh Course Essay

458 words - 2 pages the class. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Introduction to Ethical Hacking Footprinting and Reconnaissance Scanning Networks Enumeration System Hacking Trojans and Backdoors Viruses and Worms Sniffers Social Engineering Denial of Service Session Hijacking Hacking Webservers Hacking Web Applications SQL Injection Hacking Wireless Networks Evading IDS, Firewalls and Honeypots