Winkkler's Method Essay

2220 words - 9 pages

FHSC1114 Physical Chemistry
Trimester 1

Topic 1: Introductory to laboratory safety and apparatus
1. Materials requirement
There are various materials that students must bring along during laboratory session.
Students will be asked to leave the laboratory if they fail to bring the items listed.
 Laboratory manual
 Appropriate PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
 Protective laboratory coating (Lab Coat) to protect you and your attire.
 Covered shoes to protect you from chemical burn or other hazards. Open toes
shoes are strictly not allowed.
 Safety glasses or goggles to protect your eyes.
 Some ...view middle of the document...

You will be able to master
the basic technique of using different types of apparatus. These include measuring
cylinder, bulb pipette, graduated glass pipette, volumetric flasks and burette. For different
type of tasks, different set of the apparatus are to be used.

Lab manual version 4.0
Foundation in Science


FHSC1114 Physical Chemistry
Trimester 1

Laboratory Safety
 Always move slowly and carefully in the lab.
 During and after practical session, never touch your mouth or eyes with fingers before
thorough wash of hands with soap and water.
 Make sure glass objects (e.g: thermometer or glass rod) are not placed unattended on
the bench to prevent it from being rolled off from the working bench to the floor.
 Always put on your PPE such as lab coat, safety glasses and wear covered shoes in
the lab.
 Proper heating using Bunsen burner (even with heating of water).
 Proper handling of any liquids, particularly those identified as corrosive, irritant, toxic
or harmful.
 Careful handling of corrosive work.
 Allow hot plate, Bunsen burner, tripods, gauzes and beakers to cool down before
handling them.
 Keep long hair tied and do not wear dangly earrings.
 Do not allow electrical equipment to come into contact with water.
 If you are not sure about how to carry out a scientific procedure, ask the lecturer or
lab officer.
 Make sure you understand the rationale and consequences of your actions before you
 Follow all safety instructions given in the manual or provided by the lecturer/tutor for
particular experiments (e.g. use of gloves or mask).
Making Accurate Observation
The experiment will make it clear about the needed observation, e.g. the color changes
when two solutions are added together or time taken for a chemical reaction. Ensure that
you know the proper handling of relevant equipment before the start of experiment.
Think carefully about the precision of your observations. You may need to find out
reference for color description from external sources (e.g. reference books or online
references) before the practical session.
Recording Results in an Appropriate Form
Results can be recorded in various ways. Often it is helpful to record raw data in a table.
Most data will be in the form of numbers, e.g. quantitative data (also known as numerical
data). However, some data, e.g. color of solution, are qualitative. Bear in mind that the
best way for data collection is to avoid missing out any observation you have made, and
keep your raw data in safe hand.
Presenting Quantitative Results
Presentation of data can be made using table, graph or other visual means to ease result
analysis. You will have to choose the best way to present the experimental results.
Drawing Conclusion
Conclusions should be drawn from and supported by experimental results.
Lab manual version 4.0
Foundation in Science


FHSC1114 Physical Chemistry
Trimester 1

3. Writing...

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