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Wing In Ground Effect Essay

4537 words - 19 pages

1. 1.1 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3. 3.4. 4.

INTRODUCTION................................................................................................. 2 OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................... 3 GROUND EFFECT AERODYNAMICS.............................................................. 4 CHORD DOMINATED GROUND EFFECT ................................................... 4 SPAN DOMINATED GROUND EFFECT....................................................... 5 AERODYNAMIC CENTERS IN GROUND EFFECT..................................... 6 AERODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY IN GROUND EFFECT ............................... 7 ...view middle of the document...

Alexeyver, and his Hydrofoil Design and Construction Bureau. Alexeyver and his company design and build a number of very successful WIG vehicles known to the Soviet Union as Ekranoplans. The end of the cold war sees the end of the development of WIG vehicle in the Soviet Union. Several European countries too are involved in developing ground effect vehicles. In particular, Dr. Alexander Lippisch, the famous German aircraft designer and widely known for his invention of delta wing aircrafts have made significant contribution in the development of WIG vehicles. WIG vehicles, based on the reverse delta wing which is pioneered by Lippisch, still existed today and can is said to be a much better design to the Soviet Union’s Ekranoplan. The world’s first commercialized WIG vehicle today is base on the Lippisch concept (See Fig. 1).

LIPPISCH’S REVERSE DELTA WING................................................................ 17 4.1. 4.2. STABILITY .................................................................................................... 18 MANEUVERABILITY AND CONTROL...................................................... 18

5.

OTHER WIG CONCEPTS ..................................................................................... 21 5.1. 5.2. BOEING’S PELICAN..................................................................................... 21 HYBRID AIRSHIP IN GROUND EFFECT ................................................... 23

6.

CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................... 25

REFERENCES................................................................................................................ 26

2.

GROUND EFFECT AERODYNAMICS

When a wing approaches the ground, an increase in lift as well as a reduction in drag is observed which results in an overall increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. The cause of the increase in lift is normally referred to chord dominated ground effect (CDGE) or sometime also known as the ram effect. Meanwhile, the span dominated ground effect Fig 1. WG-8 in flight (With courtesy of Wigetworks Pte Ltd.) (SDGE) is responsible for the reduction in drag.

1.1

OBJECTIVES

2.1

CHORD DOMINATED GROUND EFFECT

The aim of this paper is to look into the historical developments as well as the different designs of WIG vehicles. Currently, all the WIG vehicles that have been developed up to date can be broadly classified under two main schools of thoughts: ekranoplan and Lippisch Reverse Delta. The conceptual design philosophy WIG vehicles discussed here in this paper with the emphasis on the ekranoplans which are the first WIG vehicles ever build. As most WIG vehicles generally shared the same design principles, only the important features and differences of the will be discussed.

In the study of CDGE, one of the main parameters which one considers is the height-tochord (h/c) ratio. The term height here refers to the...

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