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Waste Water Management Essay

1762 words - 8 pages

Water is crucial for all aspects of life, the defining feature of our planet. Ninety seven and a half per cent of all water is found in the oceans, of the remaining freshwater only one percent is accessible for extraction and use. Functioning and healthy aquatic ecosystems provide us with a dazzling array of benefits – food, medicines, recreational amenity, shoreline protection, processing our waste, and sequestering carbon. At the beginning of the 21st century, the world faces a water crisis, both of quantity and quality, caused by continuous population growth, industrialization, food production practices, increased living standards and poor water use strategies. Wastewater ...view middle of the document...

Sewage includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer (sanitary or combined), sometimes in a cesspool emptier.
Sewerage is the physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal. It is found in all types of sewage treatment, with the exception of septic systems, which treat sewage on-site.
Origin of waste water:
Wastewater or sewage can come from (text in brackets indicates likely inclusions or contaminants):
* Human waste (fæces, used toilet paper or wipes, urine, or other bodily fluids), also known as blackwater, usually from lavatories;
* Cesspit leakage;
* Septic tank discharge;
* Sewage treatment plant discharge;
* Washing water (personal, clothes, floors, dishes, etc.), also known as greywater or sullage;
* Rainfall collected on roofs, yards, hard-standings, etc. (generally clean with traces of oils and fuel);
* Groundwater infiltrated into sewage;
* Surplus manufactured liquids from domestic sources (drinks, cooking oil, pesticides, lubricating oil, paint, cleaning liquids, etc.);
* Urban rainfall runoff from roads, carparks, roofs, sidewalks, or pavements (contains oils, animal feces, litter, gasoline, diesel or rubber residues, metals from vehicle exhausts, etc.);
* Seawater ingress (high volumes of salt and microbes);
* Direct ingress of river water (high volumes of micro-biota);
* Direct ingress of manmade liquids (illegal disposal of pesticides, used oils, etc.);
* Highway drainage (oil, de-icing agents, rubber residues);
* Storm drains (almost anything, including cars, shopping trolleys, trees, cattle, etc.);
* Blackwater (surface water contaminated by sewage);
* Industrial waste
* industrial site drainage (silt, sand, alkali, oil, chemical residues);
* Industrial cooling waters (biocides, heat, slimes, silt);
* Industrial process waters;
* Organic or biodegradable waste, including waste from abattoirs, creameries, and ice cream manufacture;
* Organic or non bio-degradable/difficult-to-treat waste (pharmaceutical or pesticide manufacturing);
* Extreme pH waste (from acid/alkali manufacturing, metal plating);
* Toxic waste (metal plating, cyanide production, pesticide manufacturing, etc.);
* Solids and emulsions (paper manufacturing, foodstuffs, lubricating and hydraulic oil manufacturing, etc.);
* Agricultural drainage, direct and diffuse.
* Hydraulic fracturing
Waste water constituents:
The composition of wastewater varies widely. This is a partial list of what it may contain:
* Water ( > 95%) which is often added during flushing to carry waste down a drain;
* Pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, prions and parasitic worms;
* Non-pathogenic bacteria;
* Organic particles such as feces, hairs, food, vomit, paper fibers, plant material, humus, etc.;

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