Unit 4222-616 Administer medication to individuals and monitor the effects.
- The Medicines Act (1968): This governs the use of medicines for human use and for veterinary use.
- Control of Substances Hazardous to Health regulations (COSHH): This is the law that requires employers to control substances that are hazardous to health.
- The Health and Safety at Work Act: This is the primary legislation covering occupational health and safety in Great Britain. The Health and Safety Executive are responsible for the enforcement of this act.
- The Misuse of Drugs (Safe Custody) Regulations 2001: This controls the import, export, supply and ...view middle of the document...
For those allergic to Penicillin, Erythromycin may be used. Common side effects of antibiotics are Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting. These are used to treat bacterial infections within the body such as Urine/bladder infections. If used for long periods of time, antibiotics can produce other side effects such as possible fungal infections (thrush, Joint pain, muscle weakness, severe blistering, yellowed skin and yellowing of the eyes (jaundice), dark coloured urine.
Analgesia: Paracetamol/Codeine. These medicines are used in the relief of pain. Possible side effects of Paracetamol are – swelling or rash (a possible indication of an allergic reaction), Low blood pressure (when given through an infusion), liver and kidney damage if higher than recommended dosage is taken. Codeine, which is also used in pain relief, is a morphine derivative and, more commonly used in dealing with higher levels of pain such as back pain, migraines and pain that is not controlled with Paracetamol alone. Side effects of Codeine can be: light headedness, dizziness, tiredness, nausea, vomiting. Codeine can become addictive when used over a prolonged period of time. As a result of addiction, the following can occur: Irritation of the stomach lining, liver damage and sleep disturbances.
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of drugs that may also be used in the treatment of pain although, they are also used in the treatment of swelling. The most common of these is Ibuprofen, which is available over the counter and is used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain, such as toothache, headaches and period pains. Ibuprofen can also be used in the treatment of mild pyrexia’s (Influenza for example.), ease pain and inflammation caused by conditions such as Rheumatic Diseases and Musculoskeletal disorders such as Rheumatoid Arthritis. Ibuprofen should be avoided by those with certain medical conditions, like those that suffer from stomach ulcers or a history of bad reactions to NSAIDs. It should be used with caution by older people and those with health conditions such as Asthma.
Certain drugs require specific checks to be made prior to the administration of them. For example Insulin requires regular Blood Glucose tests (BMs) to be performed, so that the user can tailor the dosage to the body’s requirements. Warfarin requires the user to attend their GP weekly, to have a blood sample taken, so that levels can be checked and dosage tailored to the results by the GP.
Common adverse reactions to medications can range from a mild allergic reaction to the more severe allergic reaction - anaphylactic shock. Symptoms for this can range from a mild itchy rash to the more severe: Swelling of the tongue/throat, difficulty breathing, which may stop altogether, leading to a total system wide collapse and death if not treated. Anaphylaxis is treated in the first instance with Adrenaline, delivered through an Intramuscular injection in the thigh. All...