Unit 5 H&Sc Essay

1522 words - 7 pages

Homeostasis
The conditions inside the body must be controlled within narrow limits. This is called homeostasis. These conditions include water content, ion content, and body temperature and blood glucose concentration.
Homeostasis aims for normal functions and values from the body, such as temperature and blood glucose levels. When those values are either lower or higher than normal, homeostasis brings the functions back within normal values.
Internal environment
Concept of negative feedback
Homeostatic Mechanisms for regulation of the Heart Rate
Heart Rate
The medulla controls the heart rate. It sends and receives messages in the form of chemicals or hormones from the thousands ...view middle of the document...

While the Sympathetic system is also known as the "fight or flight" response, the Parasympathetic is often called "relax and renew."
The part of the autonomic nervous system that tends to act in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system, as by slowing down the heartbeat and dilating the blood vessels. It regulates the function of many glands, such as those that produce tears and saliva, and stimulates motility and secretions of the digestive system. Compare sympathetic nervous system.
What is the cardiac control centre?
The Cardiac Control centre is located in the brain, and controls the impulses created in the heart by the Synal Atrial node as well as the impulses in the Atrioventricular node (AV node). The Cardiac Control centre therefore controls systole in the atria and ventricles, and consequently heart rate is heightened or reduced based on the commands the Cardiac Control Centre gives out.
The nervous system has a central role in controlling homeostatic mechanisms.

Homeostatic Mechanisms for regulation of the Respiratory System
Roles of Internal Receptors
Internal receptors, or interceptors measure the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood, and that information is relayed and processes by the medulla oblongatta, which is the respiratory centre in the brain stem.

Autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is an involuntary division of the nervous system that consists of motor neurons (autonomic neurons) that conduct impulses from the brain stem or spinal cord to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands. These motor neurons are responsible for regulating heart rate, regulating peristalsis (smooth muscle contraction of the digestive organs), and the release of secretions from certain glands, such as the salivary glands in the mouth.
General Characteristics of the ANS:
1. It is a two-neuron pathway.
2. Sensory signals from viscera and skin send signals to autonomic neurons in brain and spinal cord.
3. A preganglionic neuron cell body is located within the CNS (brain stem or spinal cord).
4. Preganglionic fibres (efferent fibres) synapse with a ganglionic neuron located in the PNS
5. A postganglionic fibre terminates on the effector organ (heart, stomach, etc).
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve support
The part of the autonomic nervous system that tends to act in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system, as by slowing down the heartbeat and dilating the blood vessels. It regulates the function of many glands, such as those that produce tears and saliva, and stimulates motility and secretions of the digestive system. Compare sympathetic nervous system.
What is the Respiratory centre?
The Respiratory Centre is a multi-professional team dedicated to improving the care and quality of life of respiratory patients. We aim to provide a supportive and easily accessible service based on the needs of each individual. The Respiratory Centre (TRC) was initially established to help reduce...

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