Tm Final Essay

3143 words - 13 pages

Chapter 10:
Validity of Research Results in
Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research

Answers to Review Questions
 
10.1. What is a confounding variable, and why do confounding variables create problems in research studies?
An extraneous variable is a variable that MAY compete with the independent variable in explaining the outcome of a study. A confounding variable (also called a third variable) is a variable that DOES cause a problem because it is empirically related to both the independent and dependent variable. A confounding variable is a type of extraneous variable (it’s the type that we know is a problem, rather than the type that might potentially be a problem).
 
10.2. ...view middle of the document...

Note that when we reject the null hypothesis, the researcher says that the relationship is statistically significant.
• Effect size estimation involves the use of some type of effect size indicator (such as the percentage of variance explained, the size of the correlation, the size of the difference between two group means, etc.) to inform you of the size or strength of an observed relationship.
• In other words, null hypothesis testing tells us whether we have observed a real (i.e., non-chance) relationship, and an effect size indicator tells us how strong a significant relationship is.
 
 
10.4. What is internal validity, and why is it so important in being able to make causal inferences?
Internal validity is defined as the “approximate validity with which we infer that a relationship between two variables is causal” (Cook and Campbell, 1979, p.37). Often in research we want to be able to make causal inferences (i.e., state that two variables are causally related). To do this, we must have internal validity which is obtained through the use of design features and control techniques. The best designs are the strong experimental designs, and the best control technique is random assignment to groups. Note that it is essential for us to be able to make causal inferences because doing so helps us to know how to improve the world (e.g., find effective teaching practices, find ways to help people reach positive mental health, etc.). If you listen to your everyday language, you will see that cause and effect is embedded in your daily thinking.
 
10.5. What are the two types of causal relationships, and how do these two types of causal relationships differ?
1. Causal description involves describing the consequences of manipulating an independent variable.
2. Causal explanation involves more that just causal description; it involves explaining the mechanisms through which and the conditions under which a causal relationship holds. That is, causal explanation includes the use of mediating/intervening variables and/or moderating variables. (Definitions of these terms are in Table 2.2.)

10.6. What type of evidence is needed to infer causality, and how does each type of evidence contribute to making a causal inference?
The three necessary conditions for cause and effect are 1) Variable A and variable B must be related (the relationship condition), 2) Proper time order must be established (the temporal antecedence condition), and 3) The relationship between variable A and variable B must not be due to some confounding extraneous or third variable (the lack of alternative explanation condition). If you are going to argue that causation is occurring, then you must address each of the three conditions. You must also make sure that none of the threats to internal validity discussed in the chapter represents an alternative explanation for the research results. (A hand table showing these three necessary conditions for inferring causal...

Other assignments on Tm Final

Hospitals Paper

6014 words - 25 pages I hope to provide in this paper a comprehensive understanding for what the term “hospital” has become. Hospitals are an extremely complex system that man has created and shaped and reshaped throughout history. My goal in writing and researching this paper will be to provide those who read it a clear understanding on how the hospital system got to where it is today, and to shed some light on the many organizations that affiliate with and

Course Syllabus Essay

2610 words - 11 pages . | | |Quizzes: Section tests will be offered on MyMathLab at the end of | | |each section | | |Exams: Midterm and final exams will be given on MyMathLab

Management

1477 words - 6 pages Boeing Management Planning Heather Oetzel MGT 330 October 22, 2012 Joe Cheng Abstract Boeing is known as “the world’s leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliner and military aircraft combined ("The Boeing Company: About Us", 2012). Every company uses different types of management techniques including how the planning function of management is used. Planning allows organizations to develop how the

Assisted Suicide

1015 words - 5 pages Quill v. Vacco: - "What concern prompts the state to interfere with a mentally competent patient's 'right to define [his] own concept of existence, of meaning, of the universe, and of the mystery of human life,' [Planned Parenthood v. Casey] when the patient seeks to have drugs prescribed to end life during the final stages of a terminal illness? The greatly reduced interest of the state in preserving life compels the answer to these questions: 'None

Tanglewood Case 1

797 words - 4 pages Tanglewood’s staffing strategy requires the organization to make key decisions about the acquisition, deployment, and retention of the organization’s workforce. In order to accomplish this, Tanglewood’s must make thirteen decisions regarding its staffing levels and its staffing quality. One of the first decisions that Tanglewood needs to choose is to acquire or develop talent. Tanglewood should try to develop their current talent because one

Nnnnn

1391 words - 6 pages Есе по въпроса: Кои от всички „действащи” лица могат да се разглеждат като морално отговорни и в какво именно? по казуса Форд „Пинто” Корпоративните злодеяния са нанесли повече вреди на обществото от всички улични престъпления взети заедно. Според данни на ФБР сумата от уличните престъпления възлиза на $3.8 млрд. годишно, а загубите от корпоративните измами между $100 млрд. и $400 млрд. годишно

The Penis

1052 words - 5 pages The short story ”The Penis” is written by Hanif Kureishi. The short story is about a penis, which has been separated from its owner Doug, who we hear from later on. At first though we hear about a guy called Alfie who was “a cutter – a hairdresser – and had to get to work”. He is having breakfast with his wife, when she asks him what he did last night, and if he had a good time last night? Alfie can not remember what he did last night, he then

Managed Care Paper

543 words - 3 pages Managed Care and Case Management Care Marvin Lloyd BSHS/402-Case Management 27 August 2012 Virgil Miller Managed Care are techniques employed to help reduce the cost for providing health benefits and a system for improving organizations quality of care

Media

439 words - 2 pages The life expectancy is lower; so people are not kept alive with drugs for decades in a virtual sleep state. There is less state education; so kids don't have it drilled into them that their only goal in life is to make money, at the cost of 'everything' else. The health care is less; so diseases, usually brought by Westerners, kill many more than they do in countries where drug companies can make a fortune from selling medicines that aren't

Chapter 6 International Business

7113 words - 29 pages CGGGG The Political Economy of International Trade Chapter Outline OPENING CASE: Why Are Global Food Prices Soaring? INTRODUCTION INSTRUMENTS OF TRADE POLICY Tariffs Subsides Country Focus: Subsidized Wheat Production in Japan Import Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints Local Content Requirements Administrative Polices Antidumping Policies Management Focus: U.S. Magnesium

Scope And Goals

279 words - 2 pages Introduction: Kudler Fine Foods is a specialty food store based in San Diego, California with its three locations in La Jolla, Del Mar, and Encinitas. Kudler Fine food prides itself on offering fresh and organic products that are carefully selected from local farmers and around the world. The organization has recently taken the initiative to start a Frequent Shopper Program to market and increase sales. This program will offer the customers a

Similar Documents

Document Essay

1553 words - 7 pages change is fast and we need to keep ahead of the pace to WIN! Now- let us get down to business and create our project plan and communication strategy. Everyone in? Final Scene: TM, SM and MG: We are in!!! (ALL) MD adds a final comment. We really think this can work and thank you for the great ideas. These are great tools to assist us through this time of transition. Closing Scene: We hope you enjoyed the video and would like to

Mgt216 Essay

714 words - 3 pages The first ethical issue presented in the ethics game simulation was whether to warn consumers about the contaminated product and what information to provide consumers about the contaminant. The second ethical issue was whether to sell a product that does not meet U.S. safety requirements in a foreign market that has lower safety restrictions. G-BioSport was not required to meet prior approval from the Federal Drug Administration before they

Economy Effect Of Marijuana Essay

277 words - 2 pages Modern American History by Alan Renga 2nd Mid Term! You will be given 3 Short Essay questions and 20 Multiple Choice questions deriving from this list! 80 points total! The 1920s Warren Harding then Calvin Coolidge Tea Pot Dome 1st Red Scare Immigration Restriction, Sacco and Vanzetti Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey, KKK Prosperity, advertising Prohibition, Al Capone Flappers, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey

The Vc Shakeout Essay

2033 words - 9 pages ECONOMY 26 Luring a big firm to town is not the secret to job growth DEFEND YOUR RESEARCH 30 Are morning people wired for success? VISION STATEMENT 32 The social web’s east-west divide COLUMN 38 Warren Bennis looks back on his surprising path to fame New Thinking, Research in Progress hbr.org New Thinking, Research in Progress hbr.org FIRST The VC Shakeout Venture capital hasn’t worked for a decade and must be radically