Thinking and Decision Making
Adults face opportunities to make decisions constantly. Each day, people decide how best to solve issues, plan for the future, make ethical decisions, and more. Some decisions require little to no extra thinking, with minimal consequences or benefits; whereas other decisions require much more time due to the magnitude of the decision, and its potential impact on the wellbeing of self or others. Important decisions can result in significant consequence or benefits. Many thinking styles exist with many similarities and dissimilarities. Persuasive, creative and scientific thinking styles offer techniques for problem solving. Individuals using various forms of ...view middle of the document...
According to Klahr (2000), unlike creative thinking, the scientific method confines its results to verifiable data, and through distinct and verifiable observation and experiment.
The persuasive style of thinking seeks, through various means, to influence others toward a specific idea, behavior or belief. When performed in an ethical manner, the persuasive style of thinking is extremely valuable in its ability to lead others to accept a belief or idea that was previously not accepted. Persuasive thinking style also has the capability to deceive others by using various nefarious techniques. In contrast to the scientific method and the creative style of thinking, the persuasive style depends on one’s ability and knowledge to present their case, in a manner that leads to the intended message.
Persuasion can be defined as attempting to influence others through communication (Finn & Muth). Persuasion is an attempt to affect another person or groups thinking, and can target behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs. One should understand that persuasion is different from manipulation. Manipulation is defined as persuading someone to do something for one’s personal advantage. Persuasion is used widely and everyday. People are often being persuaded, or attempting to persuade others through daily communication.
Persuasive thinking and the reasons people attempt to persuade others can be affected by many factors. These factors include objectivity and honesty, biases, likability, and purpose. People tend to believe those who they consider objective and honest. If shown bias during communications, the audience will begin to reject the proposed argument. Persuasion is easier when speakers are likeable and avoid being condescending. In addition, it is easier to persuade others when the speaker has a clear understanding of what the audience will understand, feel, or do (Kirby & Goodpaster).
Persuasion can be successful through the use of the rational or the emotional appeal. The rational appeal works well if there is viable proof or hard facts. People who think logically will be appreciate and become affected by a rational appeal. Others will not be a swayed by facts and figures, and an emotional appeal may be more effective. Emotions can be powerful and often tie to our audience’s beliefs and values (Kirby & Goodpaster).
Persuasion is used in the workplace in many ways. Persuasive e-mails, presentations, speeches, brochures or images are sent in organizations every day. By providing some answers and benefits, rather than ask questions, leaders and workers attract attention and build interest thereby persuading the team. A chief executive officer may use persuasive techniques to persuade stakeholders that his or her ideas can turn around a company. It is important to address issues like time, money, and complacency in order to be successful in persuading others to make changes, whether in personal lives or in business.