The Thirty Years’ War was a religious and political war. The first half of the war could be characterized by the religious color and the last half of the war could be characterized by the political color.
First of all, it was a religious war between the Catholic and the Protestant on the stage of Germany. Religious interest of both parties surpassed the gravity of the Great Commandment by their LORD. Second, it was a political war between not a few parties. Especially on the latter stage of the Thirty Years’ War, many countries involved drove it into international war.
The primary property of the Thirty Years’ War was the long term itself of the war. At first, nobody ...view middle of the document...
And the fact that the rulers were from the minority meant that they were short of thoughts in common. According to Gonzalez, Rudolph was not trusted from the first, primarily because he had been educated under the Jesuits Ferdinand did not hesitated to put down the Protestantism with a strong hand in his dominions, but Rudolph was not able to follow his example.
In 1606, Rudolph was trying to follow his Cousin Ferdinand’s example in dealing with the domestic situation. He tried do suppressed the growing Protestants with power. The result was very expensive. There was a general revolt and Rudolph barely avoided being kicked off with his brother Matthias’ help. In two years, Austria and Hungry were assigned to Matthias. Now bohemia, Moravia and Silesia were left to Rudolph’s hand.
In 1609, Rudolph could not but edict the Royal Charter, a Letter of Majesty, which permitted freedom of conscience to every inhabitant of Bohemia. And finally the authority was given over to members of the Estates, that is to say, to 1,400 of the feudal aristocracy and 42 towns.
In 1611, Rudolph gave the throne over to Matthias. The new Emperor did his best to evade the effect of the Charter by appointing Catholic priests to Protestant churches. Despite all his effort, the general mood didn’t show a prominent curve.
In 1617, the next king Ferdinand took the oath to keep the Royal Charter when he became the king. But the bohemian people soon felt some antagonistic result under his reign.
A Protestant assembly was called up. There was a group of men headed by Count Henry of Thurn which was bent on the dethronement of Ferdinand. They wanted to take advantage of the popular felling to effect the murder of the two regents. So they threw out of the window two viceroys of His Royal Majesty (Ferdinand) and highest officers of the Land of Bohemia, shouting:
“Now we will take our just revenge on our religious enemies.” “Jesus, Mary!” cried Martinez. “Let us see whether his Mary will help him,” said someone mockingly. This shocking matter, Defenestration of Prague, ignited the Thirty Years’ War.
Ten years before the Thirty Years’ War, the Protestants and the Catholics became brave and forgot an important thing, the fact that they themselves were the body of the Christ. Both parties transformed their own religious holy body into a great military group. In 1608, the Protestants formed a union of defense under Palatinate leadership. They made 6 promises. The promises were of unity, secret and defense together. In 1609, the Catholic militants replied with a league under the Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. Their decision was solid. Ten years later, in 1618, the Protestant Union seized their chance to wrest Bohemia from the Catholic Hapsburgs. In 1619, Bavaria and Austria also agreed to drive the Protestants out of Bohemia.
THE THIRTY YEARS OF WAR INTO FOUR STEPS
Thus already inwardly diseased, Germany entered upon a war of thirty years. The Thirty Years’...