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The Machine That Won The War (Italian)

4499 words - 18 pages

Appunti di una lezione di FANTASCIENZA
Come dobbiamo considerare o definire questo tipo di letteratura?
È una letteratura "di idee", di contenuti, divisa in filoni tematici, ma possiede anche caratteri stilistici propri
e originali: proprio le idee formano l'ossatura di questo genere letterario. È intorno alle idee che ruotano gli
scrittori, scrittori che non ignorano i problemi della forma.
In verità le opere che rientrano in quest'ambito possono essere tra le più diverse, tanto che non vi è
concordanza sui requisiti che permettono di definire una certa opera "di fantascienza". Si tratta di una banda
larghissima di temi.
Tra gli autori c’è chi ipotizza realtà future estrapolando i ...view middle of the document...

Questi indizi possono essere fuorvianti, lo portano a determinate aspettative circa la soluzione finale, ma la
soluzione che poi dà l’autore è diversa, addirittura capovolge il punto di vista del lettore. La soluzione finale,
imprevedibile e capovolge del tutto le aspettative di chi legge.
"Sentinella" di Frederic Brown: forse il più celebre racconto di Fantascienza al mondo, un tipo classicissimo
di "straniamento". Esso inizia con la frase "Era bagnato fradicio e coperto di fango e aveva fame e freddo ed
era lontano cinquantamila anni luce da casa".
Lo spiazzante finale ce lo rivela un alieno, e vediamo noi umani attraverso i suoi occhi: "erano creature
troppo schifose, con solo due braccia e due gambe, quella pelle di un bianco nauseante, e senza squame".
Mettendoci "nei panni" degli alieni, vediamo la realtà con i loro occhi. In questa diversità fisica che provoca
ribrezzo e schifo ci scopriamo profondamente vicini e simili nei sentimenti “umani”. In quel desiderio di
pace, di felicità che accomuna tutti.
Il progresso scientifico non coincide con un “miglioramento”, in alcuni casi amplifica un problema non
risolto: la guerra.
Nella Fantascienza i rapporti umani, in genere gli elementi della nostra esperienza sociale (...) vengono
proiettati su uno sfondo insospettato, inedito, e così risultano più nitidi.
1

LA MACCHINA CHE VINSE LA GUERRA
Le celebrazioni sarebbero ancora durate chissà per quanto, e perfino laggiù, nei silenziosi abissi delle
camere sotterranee di Multivac, ne giungeva come un'eco, un riflesso.
Se non altro, c'era il fatto di quell'improvviso silenzio, di quell'isolamento: per la prima volta dopo dieci
anni, non si vedevano i tecnici correre su e giù lungo i visceri del gigantesco calcolatore, le spie luminose
non formavano i loro intricati e mobili disegni, il flusso di dati in entrata e in uscita era stato fermato.
Non sarebbe rimasto fermo per molto, naturalmente, perché anche la pace aveva le sue pressanti necessità.
Ma ora per un giorno forse per una settimana, perfino Multivac poteva celebrare la grande vittoria e
riposare.
Lamar Swift, Direttore Esecutivo della Federazione Solare, si tolse il berretto militare che aveva in testa e
guardò il lungo e deserto corridoio centrale dell'enorme calcolatore. Si sedette piuttosto stancamente, e la
sua uniforme, in cui non si era mai sentito a suo agio prese un aspetto cadente e spiegazzato.
Disse: --Ne sentirò la mancanza, anche se è stato un incubo. Dieci anni. Dieci anni di guerra Contro Deneb.
Ora mi sembra addirittura incredibile essere in pace, e poter guardare le stelle senza tremare.
I due uomini che si trovavano con Swift erano entrambi più giovani di lui. Nessuno dei due aveva i capelli
così grigi, nessuno dei due aveva l'aria così stanca.
John Henderson, parlando con le labbra strette e con una voce che tradiva un senso di sollievo, più che di
trionfo, disse: -- Li abbiamo distrutti! Li abbiamo distrutti! È questo che continuo a...

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