THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS
Basic Approaches of Organisational Behavior
An Interdisciplinary Approach: It is integrating many disciplines. It integrates social sciences and other disciplines that can contribute to the Organizational Behavior. It draws from these disciplines any ideas that will improve the relationships between people and organization. Its interdisciplinary nature is
similar to that of medicine, which applies physical, biological and social science into a workable medical practice. Organizations must have people, and people working toward goals must have organizations, so it is desirable to treat the two as a working unit.
Scientific Management Approach: ...view middle of the document...
It is assumed that expanded capabilities and opportunities for people will lead directly to improvements in operating effectiveness. Work satisfaction will be a direct result when employees make fuller use of their capabilities. Essentially, the human resources approach means that better people achieve better results.
A Contingency Approach: Traditional management relies on one basic principle– there is one best way of managing things and these things can be applied across the board in all the instances. The situational effect will be totally ignored in this traditional management. Situations are much more complex than first perceived and the different variables may require different behavior which means that different environments required different behavior for effectiveness. Each situation much be analyzed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the kinds of practices that will be more effective. Contingency theorist argues that the external environment and several aspects of the internal environment govern the structure of the organization and the process of management. Effective management will vary in different situations depending on the individual and groups in the organization, the nature of jobs, technology,the type of environment facing the organization and its structure. For example, if the employees are highly matured and willing to take more responsibility, the managers can follow delegating style and give full freedom to their employees. If the employees are not so matured and avoid taking any responsibility, the managers must follow directing style.
A Systems Approach: This implies that organization consists of many inter related and intedependent elements affecting one another in order to achieve theoverall results. Conceptually a system implies that there are a multitude of variables in organization and that each of them affects all the others in complexrelationships. An event that appears to affect one individual or one department actually may have significant influences elsewhere in the organization.Systems theorists describe the organization as “open to its external environment”,receiving certain inputs from the environment such as human resources, raw materials etc, and engaging in various operations to transform those raw materials into a finished products and finally turning out the “outputs” in its final form to be sent to the environment. The organization, since it is open to the environment, also receives feedback from the environment and takes corrective action as necessary.
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
Henri Fayol proposed that all managers are required to perform five management functions in order to execute their day-to-day activities. They are: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling.