Summary Essay

3076 words - 13 pages

Global risks:
Economic Risks
Risks in the economic category include fiscal and liquidity
crises, failure of a major financial mechanism or institution,
oil-price shocks, chronic unemployment and failure of
physical infrastructure on which economic activity depends.
Environmental Risks
Risks in the environmental category include both natural
disasters, such as earthquakes and geomagnetic storms,
and man-made risks such as collapsing ecosystems,
freshwater shortages, nuclear accidents and failure to
mitigate or adapt to climate change.
Geopolitical Risks
The geopolitical category covers the areas of politics,
diplomacy, conflict, crime and global governance. These
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Screening of investments
a. Negative/exclusionary screening - The exclusion from a fund or portfolio of certain
sectors, companies or practices based on specific ESG criteria; - $8274 bil
b. Positive/best-in-class screening - Investment in sectors, companies or projects selected
for positive ESG performance relative to industry peers; - $1013 bil
c. Norms-based screening – Screening of investments against minimum standards of
business practice based on international norms. - $3038 bil

2. Integration of ESG factors - The systematic and explicit inclusion by investment managers
of environmental, social and governance factors into traditional financial analysis. - $6176 bil

3. Sustainability themed investing – Investment in themes or assets specifically related to
sustainability (for example clean energy, green technology or sustainable agriculture). - $83 bil

4. Impact/community investing - Targeted investments, typically made in private markets,
aimed at solving social or environmental problems. Impact investing includes community
investing, where capital is specifically directed to traditionally underserved individuals
or communities, or financing that is provided to businesses with a clear social or
environmental purpose. - $89 bil

5. Corporate engagement and shareholder action - This strategy employs shareholder power
to influence corporate behavior including through direct corporate engagement (i.e.
communicating with senior management and/or boards of companies), filing or co-filing
shareholder proposals, and proxy voting that is guided by comprehensive ESG guidelines. - $4689 bil

Sustainability is a key driver of innovation. Phases of change towards sustainability:

Stage 1. Compliance is an opportunity
Challenge: to ensure that compliance with norms becomes an opportunity for innovation
Competencies needed: ability to anticipate and shape regulations, skill to work with other companies to implement creative solutions
Innovation opportunity: use compliance to experiment with sustainable technologies, materials and processes

Stage 2. Supply chains and operations are made sustainable (remote workplaces, returns)
Challenge: to increase efficiencies throughout the value chain
Competencies needed: expertise in techniques such as carbon management and life-cycle assessment, the ability to redesign operations to use less energy, water, produce fewer emissions, and generate less waste, the capacity to ensure suppliers and retailers make their operations eco-friendly
Innovation opportunity: developing sustainable sources of raw materials and components, increasing use of clean energy sources, finding innovative uses for returned products

Stage 3. Designing sustainable products and services
Challenge: to develop sustainable offerings or redesign existing ones to become eco-friendly
Competencies needed: to know which products and services are most unfriendly to the environment, ability to...

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