Through what area does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate around the brain and spinal cord?
in the subarachnoid space
Which is the usual location of language centers?
What would be the effect of damage to the auditory association area in the left hemisphere?
inability to understand what is heard
Which applies to corticospinal tract?
it is a pyramidal tract for efferent impulses
What is a major function of the limbic system?
determines emotional responses
Where are beta-1 adrenergic receptors located?
What does a vegetative state refer to?
depression of the RAS and inability to initiate action
Which is NOT part of the ...view middle of the document...
presence of collateral circulation
2. immediate therapy to dissolve thrombi and maintain perfusion
3. reduced inflammation in the area
4. development of alternative neuronal pathways
Which is NOT true about berry aneurysms in the brain?
rupture causes signs of circulatory shock
In a case of bacterial meningitis, where does swelling and purulent exudate form?
involving the pia, arachnoid and surface of the entire brain
What are significant signs of acute bacterial meningitis?
severe headache, nuchal rigidity, and photophobia
In many types of encephalitis, such as St. Louis encephalitis, how are the viruses transmitted?
bites of mosquitoes and ticks
All of the following apply to tetanus infection EXCEPT:
signs of infection include fever, vomiting, stiff neck, and paralysis
In cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, what does the pathophysiology include?
inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves, leading to ascending paralysis
How does a depressed skull fracture cause brain damage?
A section of skull bone is displaced below the level of the skull, causing pressure on the brain.
Following a head injury, what is the most likely cause of secondary damage to the brain?
hematoma or infection
An epidural hematoma is located between the
dura mater and the skull
What does the term otorrhea mean?
CSF leaking from the ear
Why may secondary damage occur shortly after a spinal cord injury?
presence of unstable fractures or dislocations of vertebrae
catecholamine release in the area causing local vasoconstriction
decreased or labile systemic blood pressure
Following a spinal injury at C5, what is the expected effect during the period of spinal shock?
possible periods of apnea
Following an injury at L2 to L3, what would indicate recovery from spinal shock?
What are the signs of autonomic dysreflexia in a person with cervical spinal injury?
sudden marked increase in blood pressure with bradycardia
Expressive aphasia is most likely to result from damage to:
the left frontal lobe
What is the usual result of damage to the right occipital lobe?
loss of left visual field
How does the heart rate change as intracranial...