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Sociology Essay Structure

3978 words - 16 pages

AQA AS Sociology Unit 2 Education (with research methods) past exam questions 2010-2013
During your 2hr exam you will answer questions on:
1. Education (2,6,12,20 marks)
2. Education (in the context of Research Methods) (20 marks)
3. Research methods (2,4,8,20 marks)
1. Education
2 mark questions
* Explain what is meant by the term “labelling‟
The process of attaching a meaning or definition to a person/pupil, or similar.
* Explain what is meant by the ‘correspondence principle’.
Education mirroring the workplace, or similar.
* Explain what is meant by the term ‘meritocracy’.
Equal opportunity or a system in which rewards are based on achievement/ability ...view middle of the document...

* Suggest three factors within schools that may lead to the educational under-achievement of pupils from some minority ethnic groups.
 teachers’ racist/negative labelling  ethnocentric curriculum  self-fulfilling prophecy as a result of internalising negative label  discriminatory admission and selection policies  more likely to be placed in a lower stream  anti-school subcultures among some black boys  institutional racism.
* Identify three policies that may promote the marketisation of education.
• publication of exam league tables • publication of Ofsted reports • voucher schemes for school/nursery places • formula funding/all pupils attracting the same amount of funding • open enrolment/allowing schools to recruit as many pupils as they can • schools competing for pupils • schools opting out of local authority control • encouragement of greater diversity of school types (specialist schools, academies, faith schools, cooperatives, free schools, etc) • business sponsorship of schools • private (fee-paying) schools.
* Identify three educational policies that may have contributed to social class differences in achievement.
• the tripartite system/ the eleven-plus exam/Butler Act/1944 Act • streaming • marketisation • private schooling • fees for higher education.
* Suggest three reasons for boys’ educational under-achievement.
• lack of male teacher role models • feminisation of assessment • boys’ poorer literacy • laddish subcultures • decline of traditional ‘male’ jobs.
12 mark questions
* Outline some of the factors within the education system that may have contributed to improvements in girls‟ achievement.
10-12 marks Concepts and issues such as the following may appear: meritocracy; liberal feminism; equal opportunities policies within schools; policies to encourage girls into non-traditional subjects; single-sex schools or classes; teacher attention/labelling; teacher role models; the feminisation of education; changes to the curriculum; coursework/changes to assessment patterns; selection policies.
Studies may include: Boaler; Elwood; Francis; French & French; Gorard; Jackson; Kelly; Mitsos & Browne; Pirie; Myhill & Jones; Sewell; Slee; Swann & Graddol; Weiner.
* Outline some of the ways in which government educational policies may have affected social class differences in educational achievement.
10-12 Concepts and issues such as the following may appear: parentocracy; meritocracy/equal opportunity; class reproduction; compensatory education; new vocationalism; cultural deprivation; material deprivation; competition; diversity, ‘Neets’. Policies may include Sure Start, Operation Headstart, the tripartite system/eleven-plus, comprehensive schooling, marketisation policies (eg league tables, open enrolment, parental choice), private schooling, EAZs, EMAs, Aim Higher, expansion of HE, HE fees and grants, free school meals, academies and specialist schools, educational...

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