P3 – Explain patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings.
For this task I have been asked to produce a report to investigate which social groupings are most in need of health and social care services. To assist in the planning of care provision in my report I will be explaining patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings identified according to factors such as gender, social class, geographical location, ethnicity and age.
SOCIAL CLASS AND PATTERNS OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS
Social class is an intricate issue that consists of status, wealth, culture, background and employment. The association between social class and ill health ...view middle of the document...
(2)” As a result of these statistics it has promoted further investigations into the detection of cardiovascular diseases and the risks within different ethnic groups.
The two social groups that are being compared are social class and ethnicity. These two groups can effect health elated issues and explain sociological perspectives, patterns and trends.
Poverty and inequality in social order have consequences on the social, physical and mental well-being of individuals. “The infant mortality rate (IMR) children born to underprivileged parents are at more risk than that of a child born to more privileged parents. (3)” People from higher social classes are much less likely to die of illnesses such as cancer, heart diseases and strokes and would be likely to live longer compare to others of lower social classes. The Black Report which was introduced in 1980, studied the health differences of people by dividing the population into five social classes and offers information on how social and environmental issues of health and illness and life expectancy can be related to one another. “There is overwhelming evidence that standards of health, the incidence of ill health or morbidity and life expectancy vary according to social groups in our society especially to social class. (4)” An explanation of this is that the higher social classes can afford to pay for private health care. Their level of income is a lot higher which results in a better lifestyle and accommodation. Whereas people who were in less paid jobs result in poor housing and a reduced amount of money to provide food and heating.
According to the Office of National Statistics, “life expectancy in the United Kingdom increased by approximately 20 years for both males and females between the periods of 1930-2009. Life expectancy in 1930 for males was age 58 and for females 63. A 33% increase occurred since then which put life expectancy up to age 78 for males and now a 30% increase for females to age 82. Life expectancy was at its highest in England between the periods 2007-2009. (5)” “Increase in life expectancy could be mainly due to the decrease in infant mortality rates. From the period 1930-2010 there was a fall which was recorded as the lowest. (6)”
There is also a difference in health between the different ethnic groups. “According to the 2001 census Pakistani and Bangladeshi men and women in England and Wales reported the highest rates of ‘not good’ health. Women are mostly likely to rate their health as ‘poor’ compared to the men. (7)” Reporting poor health has been linked with the use of health services and mortality. Pakistani and white Irish females in the England had higher doctor contact rates than females in the general population. Males from Bangladesh were three times likely to visit their doctor than males from the general population after standardising for age. (8)”
“According to the January 2007 report by the Parliamentary Office of Science...