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Socialism Essay

936 words - 4 pages

Socialism is the antithesis of individualism, which gave birth, to the capitalistic system of society. Socialism came as a countering force against the injustice and incompetence of capitalism, which involved exploitation of peasants and workers by those who own the instruments of production. The advocates of Socialism regard the State as the instrument of achieving the greatest good of the largest community. It does not minimise the importance of the individual but seeks to subordinate the individual to the community. Gandhiji also looks upon the state as an instrument of oppression of the common people. It attaches importance to such liberty only as may be necessary' for the fullest ...view middle of the document...

The decision as to what and how much to produce depends entirely on the sole consideration of private profit, the whole of which is appropriated by a small section of the people, .he owners. Thus under capitalism, the few roll in riches, while the many wallow in poverty. But under socialism, the means of production will be operated by the community through a highly democratic State- owned machinery, with a view to securing the maximum benefit to the society. Ownership is vested in the actual workers. Hence, the socialist management of production will not only prevent the exploitation of the many by the few, but it will bring into existence a new order of society where every decision with regard to what and how much to produce will be made by considerations of usefulness of such things to society. Each citizen will then set according to his capacity to achieve
this The State will maintain a central planning committee, which will develop and co-ordinate the different branches of production. Thus socialism, which grew out of the discontent among the toiling mass against the present social system, seeks to reconstruct society economically and politically on a new basis. But the methods of achieving this object are many and varied, and differences as to these, have given rise to several schools of socialists, each of which prescribes different methods for
the realisation of the socialistic ends of the state. The oldest type of socialism, which appeared for the first time in the writings of Plato, is known as Utopian Socialism. Plato, in his Republic described the State as it ought to be, rather than as it is. Plato's 'Republic' furnished a basis for many later socialistic writers, notable among whom was Sir Thomas More who, in his Utopia, published in 1515, gave us the picture of an ideal state in an island
of plenty where there was to be no private property. Utopian socialism...

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