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Sdfsd Essay

424 words - 2 pages

Hiperglikēmija |
Hiperglikēmiskā līkne 1. Norma 2. Latentais diabētsLai novērtētu ogļhidrātu v/m pacientam, izmanto cukura slodzi – iegūto glikozes līmeņa līkni sauc par hiperglikēmosko līkni.Gaita: 1. Vesels cilvēks tukšā dūšā uzņem 1-2 g/kg cukuru, bet nevairāk kā 75 g GLU 2. GLU uzsūcas KZT -> v. porta asinīs 3. aknas daļu Glu pārvērš glikogēnā, bet ne visu hiperglikēmija 4. pacienta GLU līmenis asinīs 30-60 min laikā ceļas līdz 7,3 – 9,0 mmol/L pēc 2h norma pēc 3h GLU līmenis zemāks nekā normaHiperglikēmiskais koeficients: max pēc 60 min norma: 1,5-1,7Poshiperglikēmiskais koeficients: pēc 2h norma: 0,9-1,0 |
Alimentāra hiperglikēmija | Centrāla(emocionāla) hiperglikēmija | Hiperglikēmiskās endokr. regul. traucējumi |
Etioloģija: * rodas pēc GLU uzņemšanasIzmanto: * GLU slodzes testu * GLU dubutslodzes ...view middle of the document...

ja tukšā dušā cukurs ir virs 4,4 mmol/L un ir sūdzības, tad veic cukura slodzi 3. ja cukurs tukšā dūšā ir vairāk par 11,1 mmol/L, slimniekam ir cukra diabēts, viņš tiek nosūtīts pie endokrinologa.Īslaicīgai hiperglikēmijai nelabvēlīgu seku nav.Ilgstoša hiperglikēmija var radīt sekojošus traucējumus: 1. hiperglikēmija nepārtrauktikairina pankreasu un provocē diabēta attīstību; 2. hiperglikēmija rada glikozūriju un izraisa organisma atūdeņošanos; 3. ogļhidrāti veido kopleksus ar olbaltumu un tie izgulsnējas a/v sieniņā, veicinot arterosklerotiskas izmaiņas. |

Hipoglikēmija |
Cēloņi: |
Eksogēni | Endogēni |
* bads * alkohola lietošana * medikamenti (INH) * insulīna preperātu pārdozēšana * ilgstoša, intensīva fiziska slodze | * bads * malabsorbcijas sindroms – ogļhidrātu malabsorbcija KZT * aknu mazspēja – glikogēna krājumi ir mazi * vielmaiņas slimības ar GLU zudumiem vai izm. traucējumiem * endokrīnās sistēmas slimības |
Hipoglikēmijas stadijas |
1.stadija – Vieglas pakāpes hipoglikēmija * „vilka” apetīte * galvassāpes * reiboņi * vājums * svīšana * muskuļu trīce * zīlīšu paplašināšanās * sirdsdarbības frekvences palielināšanās2.stadija – Vidēji smaga hipoglikēmija * redzes, runas traucējumi * afekta stāvokļa parādības * uzbudinājums3.stadija – Hipoglikēmijskā koma * iestājas 1,7 – 2,0 mmo/l * galvas smadz. garozā iestājas kavēšana * zemākajos CNS centros - uzbudinājums |
Hipoglikēmiskā komaGlikozes trūkums nervu šūnās.Pazīmes: * bezsamaņa * krampji * virspusēja elpošana * auksta, mitra,bāla āda * cieti acāboli-jo samazinoties Glu līmenim EC telpā ūdens pārvietojas uz šūnu, acāboli piebriest * krampji, vēdera nesaturēšana – galvas smadzeņu garoza vairs nekontrolē zemgarozas centrus.Pirmā palīdzība hipoglikēmijas gadījumā: 1. ja slimnieks ir pie samaņas – jādod apēst kaut ko saldu 2. ja iestājusies ko,a – i/v ievada 40% GL |

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