Associate Program Material
Answer the following in at least 100 words:
1. Describe the structure of DNA.
DNA is composed of two polynucleotide strands wound together into a structure known as a double helix. Each nucleotide consists of a sugar base .Nucleotides form together creating a sugar phosphate backbone to each strand. There are three forms of DNA that differ significantly. The most common, B form, is the structure most people have heard of. It consists of the right handed double helix, with a large major groove and a smaller but accessible minor groove. These grooves are spaces between the ...view middle of the document...
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phrenology, behavior, and products of behavior. Phenotypes result from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. Genotype means all the genes in a species DNA. Phenotype is what you would see in a species. Reactions involve the formation of products that are functioning in the cell for various things such as structural support, fibers, cytoskeleton, channels on membrane, enzymes that metabolize food molecules like glucose, energy production, transport, signal systems, pigmentation, attachment to other cells and various others.
3. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait.
Polymers such as DNA and RNA are carry information that is passed from generation to generation. They contain a great amount of linked nucleotides made of sugar, a phosphate and a base. An array of nucleotides in DNA duplicate into a molecule of RNA inside the cell’s nucleus. Before being translated, the RNA navigates its way to the cytoplasm. From the cytoplasm, it is converted in to the specific amino acid sequence of a protein