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Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Essay

1032 words - 5 pages

The effects of ultrasound waves on biological tissues are called bioeffects. Ultrasound is a non-ionizing form of radiation, they have an extremely low frequency which is why ultrasound waves are not known to cause harm to human tissue. There are different categories of bioeffects; these categories are known as thermal effects and mechanical effects. Thermal bioeffects depend on the duration of exposure and the frequency. In brightness modulation and in color mode a wider area is scanned so the heat can be distributed over that space. In amplitude modulation, motion mode, and Doppler modes, one line is scanned repeatedly to gather information which in turn makes that line have a concentrated ...view middle of the document...

In the 1920’s the first person to realize that there was destruction at areas of very high intensity was a man named Langévin. The ultrasonic therapy was used in many areas; physical and rehabilitation medicine, arthritis, and stomach ulcers. Around the 1950’s people began using a variety of different machines and began to realize that they could use these waves to get images of organs and structures inside of the body and generate diagnosis from these images. The safety of diagnostic ultrasound has been questioned since the beginning of scanning, the fact that ultrasound was being used to destruct ulcers made people question if it was destructing other parts of the body in the process. Research studies have been done on pregnant rats, where they were exposed to continuous high intensities for three days after they had been fertilized with no adverse affects.
The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) is an institution that has been around since the origin of ultrasound in the medical field. This organization sets goals and standards that we must meet on a daily basis in our field, in the form of education on bioeffects and also giving us safety ranges that must be met by the ultrasound machines. The most relative intensity of bioeffects is SPTA; the spatial peak and the temporal average. SPTA is the most important in bioeffects as it is the needed range for tissue heating in diagnostic imaging. The AIUM sets these strength limitations so there is a measurable allowable exposure depending on what you are scanning. The AIUM’s main concern is making sure fetal exposure remains within the allowable range during scan. To make sure we aren’t exposing a patient for just enjoyment even though there are no known effects. The FDA has regulations on intensity maximums also, which are the same as the AIUM’s limitations.
We are taught to make sure we practice the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) with every patient; which means adjusting different aspects of the machine to reduce what gets to the patient and also only exposing a person to needed medical exams. More education and...

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