A term paper discussing
Michel El Zoghbi
Mirna El Khoury
3. Literature Review
6. Effects on Russian Music:
* Effects of War
* Problems caused by Russian Climate
This term paper will be discussing the history of the Russian music and its evolvement. Moreover, it will include some native instruments and the effect of weather, war, and religion on the Russian music.
Beginning from the sacred music of the Russian Orthodox Church and passing through diverse ...view middle of the document...
18th and 19th centuries:
Due to the proscription by the Orthodox Church against secular music, Russia was a late starter in developing a native tradition of classical music. In the reign of Ivan IV, the Imperial Court invited Western musicians and composers to fill this void. These artists became a regular fixture at Court, at the time of Peter I. Peter saw European music as a mark of civilization and a way of westernizing the country. In the year 1730, the empress Anna Ivsnovna imported an Italian opera troupe to entertain her. This is when the secular music on a Western model began to be cultivated. By the end of the 18th century, a small body of court operas was formed by native composers and other choirmasters. These court operas were based on Russian librettos. This craze for Italian opera became so pervasive that many were not even aware that Russian composers existed.
Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) was the first Russian composer to exploit traditions of the native Russian music into the realm of secular music. He composed Ivan Susanin and Russian and Lyudmila.
During the 19th century, the Russian Musical Society (RMS) was founded, led by composer Nikolay Rubinstein (1835–1881) and Anton (1829–1894).
“The Mighty Five”, a famous Russian band at the time, was often presented as the Russian Music Society's rival, with the RMS being musically conservative and the Five embracing their Russian national identity. The RMS founded the first Conservatories in Moscow and in St Petersburg : the former trained the Russian composer Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), who is widely known for ballets like Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, and The Nutcracker.
This period witnessed the third wave of Russian classical music led by the great Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971), Dmitri Shostakovich (1906–1975), Sergei Prokofiev (1891–1953),and Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915).
In the late 19th century, the so-called "romance songs" became popular. The most popular singers of the "romances" mostly sang in operas at the same time.
Russian musical instruments:
Secular music included the use of musical instruments such as brass instruments and string instruments, and was usually played by jesters and minstrels who entertained the nobility on holidays.
1. Russian guitar (sometimes referred to as a "Gypsy guitar") is an acoustic seven-string guitar that was created in Russia at the end of the 18th century. It is a hybrid instrument that shares important organ logical features with the Spanish guitar. It is recognized in Russian as the semistrunnaya gitara, or as the semistrunka, which means "seven-stringer." These guitars are tuned to an Open G chord: D2 G2 B2 D3 G3 B3 D4.
2. The balalaika is a Russian stringed musical instrument characterized by a triangular body and three strings. This instrument’s family consists of different sized instruments, from the highest pitched to the lowest: the prima balalaika, piccolo balalaika, secunda balalaika, alto...