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Richard Katz Essay

682 words - 3 pages

Richard Katz, Elite Attitudes and the Democratic Deficit in the European Union
Deşi Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o garanţie a democraţiei şi a stabilităţii economice, mai ales pentru Europa Centrală şi de Est, este subiect al criticilor privind lipsa de democraţie care o caracterizează ca entitate. Deficitul democratic la acest nivel a fost abordat din mai multe perspective, însă cea mai stringentă şi nouă o reprezintă cea care vizează Parlamentul European.
Singura instituţie care este aleasă direct şi este responsabilă pentru reprezentarea cetăţenilor europeni, Parlamentul European, este de fapt, una slabă. Spre deosebire de parlamentele naţionale, cel european nu controlează ...view middle of the document...

Pe de altă parte, atribuţiile Comisiei şi Consiliului de Miniştri nu îndeplinesc criteriile esenţiale ale democraţiei.
Mai mult, se pune problema unui deficit democratic la nivel european, nu numai la nivelul UE. Acest fapt se datorează pe de o parte globalizării, pe de altă parte, faptului că multe din atribuţiile care reveneau la nivel naţional au fost preluate de instituţiile europene. De asemenea, guvernele naţionale învinăvoţesc Bruxelul pentru multe din deciziile care au efect la nivel naţional, dar au fost luate la nivel european. Astfel că, soluţia ar fi ca şeful executivului european ar trebui să fie ales de către Parlamentul European, iar atribuţiile Consiliului de Miniştri ar trebui să fie restrânse.
Katz recapitulează trei modele ale democraţiei. Primul, modelul democraţiei binare implică existenţa a două partide care să propună soluţii, presupunând câştigarea unei majorităţi. Al doilea model, cel al democraţiei Downsiene, susţine existenţa unei singure dimensiuni de soluţii, implicând partide oportuniste care câştigă alegerile şi formarea de coaliţii care să aibă rol legislativ, dar care să reprezinte votanţii. Al treilea model, cel al democraţiei liberale are ca punct central problema agent – principal şi controlul deciziilor guvernanţilor (agenţi) care pot lua decizii în defavoarea intereselor cetăţenilor (principali). Democraţia liberală este preocupată de...

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