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Resisitinf Organizational Level Essay

1521 words - 7 pages

"According to act-utilitarianism, it is the value of the consequences of the particular act that counts when determining whether the act is right. Bentham's theory is act-utilitarian, and so is that of J.J.C. Smart.
One objection to act-utilitarianism is that it seems to be too permissive, capable of justifying any crime, and even making it morally obligatory, if only the value of the particular consequences of the particular act is great enough. Another objection is that act-utilitarianism seems better in theory than in practice, since we hardly ever have the time and the knowledge to predict the consequences of an act, assess their value, and make comparisons with possible ...view middle of the document...

The belief that the value of a thing or an action is determined by its utility.
The ethical theory proposed by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
The quality of being utilitarian: housing of bleak utilitarianism.

Kantian deontology

I. Kant’s Rejection of Axiology: Kant argues that there is nothing that is unconditionally good (not pleasure,
happiness, or anything else) except a good will. An “ill-gotten” pleasure is not good. The pleasure of a bad
person is not good.
A. The Good Will: The good will is one that acts for the sake of (not just in conformance with) moral
B. Priority of Right: This puts the concept of moral duty prior to and independent of any concept of
goodness. Hence, Kant is not an axiologist.
II. Kant’s Theory of Right (Obligation):
A. Crucial terminology:
1. Maxim: A maxim is a subjective principle of action. It is a “rule” on which we are acting when
we act voluntarily.
2. Objective Principle: a principle on which every rational agent would necessarily act if reason
had full control of her actions.
a) Note: A principle may be both subjective and objective. If you in fact act on a principle that
every rational agent would necessarily act on if reason had full control of her actions, then
your maxim (subjective principle) is also an objective principle of action.
3. Imperatives: Imperatives are sentences that guide action—for example, “Do x” or “Don’t do x”.
a) Hypothetical Imperatives: Hypothetical imperatives are of the form, “If you want y, do x”, or,
“If you want y, don’t do x”. Their applicability to you depends on whether you have the aim
stated in the antecedent (the “if” clause) of the conditional sentence.
b) Categorical Imperatives: A categorical imperative prescribes action without condition.
B. THE Categorical Imperative (CI):
B. THE Categorical Imperative (CI):
1. Kant believed that all moral imperatives were categorical. However there is only one supreme
categorical imperative of morality. He refers to this as the categorical imperative (CI). He
formulates the categorical imperative in four different ways. We will only consider the
universalizability formulation.
2. Universalizability:
a) Statement of the Universal Law of Nature formulation of the Categorical Imperative: “Act as
if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a universal law of nature.”
(1) The test of universalizability requires us to act on maxims that we could will everyone to
act on. It does not say that a maxim is an objective principle of action if, and only if, one
could will that it be a universal law.
(a) We follow many maxims that we could will to be universal, but we could also will
contrary maxims to be universal.
(b) The CI is a test of moral permissibility. An action is permissible if its maxim passes

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