“RESEARCH METHODS & TECHNIQUES”
SIR.HAFIZ MUSHTAQ AHMED
NOUMAN UL QAYYUM
31ST DEC, 2009
In The Name Of Allah Most Gracious, Most Merciful
“Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The Parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp:
The Lamp enclosed in Glass:
The glass as it was a brilliant star:
Lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is well-nigh luminous, ...view middle of the document...
Organizational culture is defined as a model of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization, that operate unconsciously, and that define an organization’s view of it and its environment. The idea of organization or corporate culture has been identified as an important aspect of organizational behavior and as a concept that is useful in helping to understand how organizations function. In addition, culture helps determine how well a person “fits” within a particular organization because the “fit” includes feeling comfortable with the culture. For the group member, culture is the “social glue that helps hold the organization together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do.” As a consequence, culture reduces an employee’s uncertainty and anxiety about expected behavior.
A company’s culture differentiates it from other companies and helps explain why employees are attracted to one employer versus other employers. Nowadays, there is an increasing consensus on the idea that organizations making the effort to introduce a culture which encourages communication among their members, experimentation and risk-taking, and motivates employees to question fundamental beliefs and work patterns, will achieve a favorable working atmosphere for the development of their capacity to learn. In a globalized world that is progressively becoming part of our daily life, cultural barriers are breaking down and cross cultural understanding needs to take place.
RATIONALE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
Culture has been characterized by many authors as “something to do with the people, unique quality and style of organization” (Kilman et al., 1985). The beginnings of formal writing on the concept of organizational culture started with Pettigrew (1979). According to Reichers and Schneider (1990), while culture researchers have devoted numerous articles to the nature and definitions of culture, relatively fewer articles have been contributed towards culture and performance research. One reason for this was the difficulty in operationalizing the culture construct. Kotter and Heskett (1992) refined the culture-performance framework. Certain types of organizational cultures, or certain styles of cultures, have been associated with either positive or negative outcomes for either the effectiveness of the organization (as the introductory discussion of NASA and the American Airlines crash illustrate) or for individual employees within the organization (Schein, 1996; Deal and Kennedy, 1982). Positive outcomes for individual members of organizations potentially include motivation and satisfaction (Cooke and Szurnal, 1993, 2000; O’Reilly, 1989) while negative outcomes might include job insecurity and stress (Kahn et al., 1964; Katz and Kahn, 1966, van der Velde and Class, 1995). During the 1990s a number of comparative studies on the culture-performance link showed that certain culture orientations are conducive...