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Research Papers

8621 words - 35 pages

Republic of the Philippines
Cebu Normal University
Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City
Philippines 6000

Subject:
Social Science Major 11 – Economic Planning and Strategies
Course:
Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Social Science

Professor:
Dr. Gary B. Lapiz

THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS
Management is defined in different ways. It is the process of designing or maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims, Weihrich, (1993). According to Mahony (1961), “It is the unifying and coordinating activity which combines the actions of individuals into meaningful and purposeful group endeavor”. Terry (1982) defined management ...view middle of the document...

They facilitate the use of a logical thought process that is consistent with the objectives of the firm. The capital budgeting process, for example, is based on financial market disciplines that encourage wise investment. Product planning is focused on both creating customer value and realizing the benefits of new products for the firm’s investor, not one or the other.
Management processes should be seen as a support to and not a replacement for management judgment. These processes require the development of expectations about the future and provide guidance in light of the associated assumptions. The wise manager uses these tools as inputs to decision-making which, when combined with business acumen, provide a solid basis for choice.

MANAGEMENT
Management is “the art of getting things done through the efforts of other people”. Formally defined, the principles of management are the activities that “plan, organize, lead and control the operations of the basic elements of [people], materials, machines, methods, money and markets, providing direction and coordination, and giving leadership to human efforts, so as to achieve the sought objectives of the enterprise as it includes also the directing and staffing.”
Management is variedly referred to as; the manner of treating, directing, carrying on, or using for a purpose; conduct, administration, cautious handling or treatment; or the body of directors or managers of any undertaking, concern or interest collectively.
Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources. 
Management has the following 3 characteristics:
1. It is a process or series of continuing and related activities.
2. It involves and concentrates on reaching organizational goals.
3. It reaches these goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.

Types of Managers
In addition to serving at different levels of authority, managers work in different capacities within organizations. If productivity in the form of high levels of performance effectiveness and efficiency is a measure of organizational success, managers are largely responsible for its achievement.
A line manager leads a function that contributes directly to the products or services the organization creates. For example, a line manager (often called a product, or service manager) at Procter & Gamble (P&G) is responsible for the production, marketing, and profitability of the Tide detergent product line.

A staff manager, in contrast, leads a function that creates indirect inputs. For example, finance and accounting are critical organizational functions but do not typically provide an input into the final product or service a customer buys, such as a box of Tide detergent. Instead, they serve a supporting role.

Functional managers are responsible for the efficiency and effectiveness of an area, such as accounting or marketing....

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