Projective technique – Word associated
Word association is a projective technique where the respondent is presented with a stimulus and is asked to respond with the first thing that comes to their mind when shown a given name, photo or event (Malhotra (1999)).
According to Malhotra & Berks (2000) the assumption of using this technique is that the association allows respondents to reveal their inner feelings about the topic. Responses can be analysed by calculating either of the following:
1. The frequency of any word that is given as a response.
2. The amount of time it takes before a response is given (hesitation).
3. The number of respondents that don’t respond to the test word (blocking).
If the respondent takes more than three seconds to answer a particular question this is called hesitation, and this indicates some comparison between ...view middle of the document...
We need to gain a different range of respondents in order to prevent bias answers and to make the technique as successful as possible for example standing outside a particular shop will only gain respondents with similar interests and opinions. Another example would be by only targeting the elderly market the question ‘How much of the information is still remembered in the UK?’ this question would present findings showing that hardly any information is remembered because of the fact that this age group’s memory isn’t as strong as other age group’s so this is another reason to why we need to target different age group’s/respondents.
For the respondent they can either write down the answers or report them verbally to the moderator. If the respondent gave more than one word the moderator would not stop them, instead they would probe the respondent for further words e.g. for ‘chocolate’ they might give answers such as ‘treat’, ‘biscuit’, ‘Cadburys’, ‘temptation’ etc. Then the moderator could ask ‘why do you link chocolate with temptation?’ (Wilson (2003)). Although the implications of doing this is that it pressures respondents to react quickly to single words it may lead to answers that are difficult to interpret (Parasuraman, Grewal & Krishnan (2007)).
Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, 3rd edition, Naresh Malhotra, Prentice-Hall International, 1999
Marketing Research: An Applied Approach, Naresh Malhotra & David Birks, 2000, Pearson Education
Marketing Research, 2nd Edition, 2007, A Parasuraman, D Grewal, R Krishnan,
Marketing Research, 7th edition, 2005, Peter Chisnall, McGraw-Hill Education
Marketing Research: An Intergrated Approach, Alan Wilson, 2003, Pearson Education
Marketing Research: A Practical Approach, Bonita Kolb, 2008, SAGE