# Research Essay

1026 words - 5 pages

Date : October 10th 2013
QUESTION 1
Explain the following variables with their categories. For example: categorical, continuous, discrete or qualitative or quantitative.
1. Nominal
2. Ordinal
3. Dichotomous
4. Interval
5. Ratio
We need to grasp the different types of variables we may discover while doing our dissertation. Categorical variables and Continuous variables are the main types of variables. Categorical variables are also known as qualitative or discrete variables while continuous variables are known as quantitative variables.
Categorical variables can be differentiated as:
* Nominal
* Dichotomous
* Ordinal
Categorical variables have ...view middle of the document...

For example:
Question : Do you think our new leader is good in managing people?
Ordinal variable : Opinion for their new leader
Level : I do not think so; she is good; yes of course.

Therefore, if you asked a question to respondents in questionnaire and you have 3 answers that indicate the level of quality whether something like a room quality is “very clean”, “clean enough”, or “dirty”; it is an ordinal variable. However we cannot provide a benchmark value to each answer like we cannot say “very clean” is twice as “dirty”.

3. Dichotomous
Dichotomous variables just like nominal variables that only have two categories / levels. It can be differentiated as two conditions:
a. Dichotomous variables are intended to provide an answer for yes/no questions or either/or response.
For example:
Question : do you love math?
Answer : yes I do (or No I do not)
Dichotomous variable : Opinion about loving math
Category : Yes, No

b. Dichotomous variables which choice answers of the questions have already provided 2 categories.
For example:
Question : do you love math?
Answer : I love mathematic to the full extent. (Or I hate math)
Dichotomous variable : Opinion about loving math
Category : I love mathematic to the full extent, I hate math.

Question : how is your final exam?
Category : Passed, Failed

Other examples of dichotomous variable:
a. Gender: male or female.
b. Exam result: fail or pass.
c. Coin toss: head or tails.
d. Agree or disagree.
e. Less than or more than.
f. Type of property: residential or commercial.
g. Employed or unemployed

4. Interval
Interval variable has order and equal lapse/interval that can be measured along a continuum and the value is numeric whether it is negative or positive. With interval data, you probably can use logical operations like add and subtract, but cannot do multiply or divide.
For example:
Interval variable : years of study.
Explanation :Ana started studying in 2001 and finished in 2005, while Andy from 2008 to 2012. They completed their studies within a period of 4 years.

Interval variable : temperature.
Explanation : The temperature of 60°C...

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