SOCIAL RESEARCH METHOD
Q: Which research design suits your research topic and why?
OUR RESEARCH QUESTION:
Our research construct is glass ceiling prevailing and increasing in the organizations. Therefore, our research question is “how to break glass ceiling?”
There are five basic research designs according to which one can conduct his/her research. These research designs are:
1. Experimental design
2. Longitudinal design
3. Explanatory design
4. Cross sectional design
5. Case study design
DESIGN THAT SUITS OUR TOPIC:
Keeping in consideration all other methods and designs, we think that cross sectional design suits our research topic. Cross sectional design may be defined as “A basic type of research method in which a large cross-section of the population is studied at one specific time and the differences between individual groups within the population compared.”
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Cross-sectional studies are observational in nature and are known as descriptive research, not causal or relational. Researchers record the information that is present in a population, but they do not manipulate variables. This type of research can be used to describe characteristics that exist in a population, but not to determine cause-and-effect relationships between different variables. These methods are often used to make inferences about possible relationships or to gather preliminary data to support further research and experimentation.
* Takes place at a single point in time
* Does not involve manipulating variables
* Allows researchers to look at numerous things at once (age, income, gender)
* Often used to look at the prevalence of something in a given population
* Are relatively quick
* Do not themselves differentiate between cause and effect or the sequence of events.
While the design sounds relatively simple, finding participants who are very similar except in one specific variable can be difficult. Also, groups can be affected by cohort differences that arise from the particular experiences of a unique group of people. Individuals born in the same time period may share important historical experiences, while people born in a specific geographic region may share experiences limited solely to their physical location.
CROSS SECTIONAL VS LONGITUDINAL STUDIES
This type of research differs from longitudinal research in that cross-sectional studies are designed to look at a variable at a particular point in time. Longitudinal studies involve taking multiple measures over an extended period of time, while cross-sectional research is focused on looking at variables at a specific point in time. The researchers are able to detect developments or changes in the characteristics of the target population at both the group and the individual level. As a result, they can establish sequences of events. A longitudinal study and its topic are critiqued for quite a lengthy period of time. This study is undertaken by the researcher and lasts for years.