This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Replicas And Forgeries Essay

2311 words - 10 pages

Replicas and Forgeries
Chris Rohr
Western Governors University
Replicas and Forgeries
Fakes, forgeries and replicas have been created for centuries. Determining the difference between them has been an issue of growing importance. Hundreds of books have been written on the subject and there are professions and organizations built around determining the true nature of an object. For the purposes of this paper and object may be a work of art, a document or an artifact. A replica is a copy of an original object that is not presented as the original. The replica is not considered the original even if it is made of the same materials and constructed in the same fashion as the original ...view middle of the document...

Deception in representing the object may not always involve a new version of the object. The whole realm of conservation and restoration can be used to represent the object as something other than its true nature. Condition of an original object can be very important to a collector. Most conservation to objects consists of cleaning, repair of visible damage, reinforcement of weak structures and reconstruction of severely damaged or missing sections of the work. If this work is documented and known to the potential buyers of the object it may change how the object is viewed. No matter how good the craftsmanship the additions and repairs of a restorer may be viewed as forgery of an object. Savage (1963) warns his readers about dishonest restorers, “But restoration done for the purpose of deceiving a buyer into thinking that an object is in better condition than it is must always be fraudulent” (p.274).

The original fake has been an area of much controversy in the art and archeological world. It is know that original objects have been copied and reproduced for centuries. Research has found some reproductions have come to be valued as greatly as original works of art (Haskell & Penny, 1998). To determine if objects are replicas, fakes or forgeries it is necessary to see if the intent was to be deceptive about the true nature of the object. The concept of original and copy have changed over time. It is well documented that Renaissance masters sold paintings done by their assistants as if they had done the work themselves. “In this case the masters’ originality meant the individuality and novelty of the artistic idea and style, as well as his supervision of the execution” (Radnóti,1999, p.52). The intent of the artists is somewhat different when viewing some of the recent South American pottery. The pottery created today is from the same raw material and the artists are using the same molds that were used 3000 years ago. Stanish observers the profit from forgeries is greater than finding and selling originals. “The short answer is that many of the primary "producers" of the objects have shifted from looting sites to faking antiquities“(Stanish, 2009). The difference between the renaissance masters and the South American potters is intent to deceive. The masters sold the objects as their creative work and the South American potters sell theirs as forged pre-Columbian artifacts.
The original, the forgery and the replica carry with them a perceived value. The value can be discussed in terms of culture, style, impact or influence on other artists and of course the monetary value given to an object. It has become difficult to separate the monetary component from the objects. Savage (1963) viewed the art-market as the acceptable vehicle for the transfer and evaluation of objects; “…, but the art-market is even more essential than before because it is the only way of assessing value” (p.243). The value of objects has been...

Other assignments on Replicas And Forgeries

Course Syllabus Essay

2610 words - 11 pages [pic] COURSE SYLLABUS Semester: Fall, Year: 2012  College Mission Statement Richard J. Daley College provides high-quality education which leads to academic success, career development, and personal enrichment that fulfill diverse community needs. Mathematics Department Mission Statement Our mission is to deliver excellent service and to provide learning opportunities by offering a wide range of mathematics courses, which will help our

Management Essay

1477 words - 6 pages Boeing Management Planning Heather Oetzel MGT 330 October 22, 2012 Joe Cheng Abstract Boeing is known as “the world’s leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliner and military aircraft combined ("The Boeing Company: About Us", 2012). Every company uses different types of management techniques including how the planning function of management is used. Planning allows organizations to develop how the

Assisted Suicide

1015 words - 5 pages , and Switzerland. In the Netherlands, voluntary euthanasia has been legal since 1983, with some 3,000 people requesting it each year. In Australia, assisted suicide was legalized in the Northern Territory with the backing of a substantial majority of the local population, but was then overthrown by the Federal Senate before anyone could actually use the new law. However, in Oregon and California, state legislation has been passed to allow for

Tanglewood Case 1

797 words - 4 pages Tanglewood’s staffing strategy requires the organization to make key decisions about the acquisition, deployment, and retention of the organization’s workforce. In order to accomplish this, Tanglewood’s must make thirteen decisions regarding its staffing levels and its staffing quality. One of the first decisions that Tanglewood needs to choose is to acquire or develop talent. Tanglewood should try to develop their current talent because one


1391 words - 6 pages Есе по въпроса: Кои от всички „действащи” лица могат да се разглеждат като морално отговорни и в какво именно? по казуса Форд „Пинто” Корпоративните злодеяния са нанесли повече вреди на обществото от всички улични престъпления взети заедно. Според данни на ФБР сумата от уличните престъпления възлиза на $3.8 млрд. годишно, а загубите от корпоративните измами между $100 млрд. и $400 млрд. годишно

The Penis

1052 words - 5 pages The short story ”The Penis” is written by Hanif Kureishi. The short story is about a penis, which has been separated from its owner Doug, who we hear from later on. At first though we hear about a guy called Alfie who was “a cutter – a hairdresser – and had to get to work”. He is having breakfast with his wife, when she asks him what he did last night, and if he had a good time last night? Alfie can not remember what he did last night, he

Managed Care Paper

543 words - 3 pages Managed Care and Case Management Care Marvin Lloyd BSHS/402-Case Management 27 August 2012 Virgil Miller Managed Care are techniques employed to help reduce the cost for providing health benefits and a system for improving organizations quality of


439 words - 2 pages day, that they are worse off than we are. People continue to believe what the mass media tells them. Kenya's tourism industry is undergoing a transformation - from the mass tourism of the seventies and eighties, when cheap package holidays were the norm, to the development of a quality-tourism product. Claire Footit reports. Laissez-faire policies towards tourism development in the seventies and eighties made Kenyan tourism a victim of its

Chapter 6 International Business

7113 words - 29 pages CGGGG The Political Economy of International Trade Chapter Outline OPENING CASE: Why Are Global Food Prices Soaring? INTRODUCTION INSTRUMENTS OF TRADE POLICY Tariffs Subsides Country Focus: Subsidized Wheat Production in Japan Import Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints Local Content Requirements Administrative Polices Antidumping Policies Management Focus: U.S. Magnesium

Scope And Goals

279 words - 2 pages Introduction: Kudler Fine Foods is a specialty food store based in San Diego, California with its three locations in La Jolla, Del Mar, and Encinitas. Kudler Fine food prides itself on offering fresh and organic products that are carefully selected from local farmers and around the world. The organization has recently taken the initiative to start a Frequent Shopper Program to market and increase sales. This program will offer the customers a


251 words - 2 pages Meerkat The meerkat or suricate, Suricata suricatta, is a small mammal belonging to the mongoose family. Meerkats live in all parts of theKalahari Desert in Botswana, in much of the Namib Desert in Namibia and southwestern Angola, and in South Africa. A group of meerkats is called a "mob", "gang" or "clan". A meerkat clan often contains about 20 meerkats, but some super-families have 50 or more members. In captivity, meerkats have an average

Similar Documents

Mgt216 Essay

714 words - 3 pages The first ethical issue presented in the ethics game simulation was whether to warn consumers about the contaminated product and what information to provide consumers about the contaminant. The second ethical issue was whether to sell a product that does not meet U.S. safety requirements in a foreign market that has lower safety restrictions. G-BioSport was not required to meet prior approval from the Federal Drug Administration before they

Economy Effect Of Marijuana Essay

277 words - 2 pages Modern American History by Alan Renga 2nd Mid Term! You will be given 3 Short Essay questions and 20 Multiple Choice questions deriving from this list! 80 points total! The 1920s Warren Harding then Calvin Coolidge Tea Pot Dome 1st Red Scare Immigration Restriction, Sacco and Vanzetti Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey, KKK Prosperity, advertising Prohibition, Al Capone Flappers, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey

The Vc Shakeout Essay

2033 words - 9 pages ECONOMY 26 Luring a big firm to town is not the secret to job growth DEFEND YOUR RESEARCH 30 Are morning people wired for success? VISION STATEMENT 32 The social web’s east-west divide COLUMN 38 Warren Bennis looks back on his surprising path to fame New Thinking, Research in Progress New Thinking, Research in Progress FIRST The VC Shakeout Venture capital hasn’t worked for a decade and must be radically

Hospitals Paper

6014 words - 25 pages I hope to provide in this paper a comprehensive understanding for what the term “hospital” has become. Hospitals are an extremely complex system that man has created and shaped and reshaped throughout history. My goal in writing and researching this paper will be to provide those who read it a clear understanding on how the hospital system got to where it is today, and to shed some light on the many organizations that affiliate with and