CCJS 461 6980
Project 2: Literature Review
October 20, 2014
“Poverty refers to a situation which the basic resources to maintain an average standard of living within a specific geographic region are lacking.” (Bartol & Bartol, 2014, p. 31) It is known that there is a definite connection between poverty and criminal activity. The connection leaves little doubt that poverty is a legitimate risk factor and those who are forced to survive in impoverished conditions are more likely to engage in criminal activity. “There is little doubt that poverty has a strong connection to persistent, violent offending, as measured by official, victimization and self-report data ...view middle of the document...
Wherever there are a large amount of individuals packed into one concentrated impoverished area the result is often criminal activity on a large scale. Daniel Harley highlights such points in the article “Public housing, concentrated poverty, and crime.” The article focuses on the city of Chicago, public housing and the individuals located in those concentrated areas. According to the article “higher concentrations of poverty are associated with more crime” (Hartley, 2014). Therefore the demolishing of public housing has been proven to reduce criminal activity. Destroying the public housing eliminates the poverty concentration therefore creating an environment that is more conducive to healthy living. “The demolition of public housing in Chicago has greatly reduced extreme concentrations of poverty” (Hartley, 2014). Although poverty concentration has been reduced according to studies all criminal activity is not eliminated through the process. “Overall, we find that the closures and demolitions of high-rise public housing in Chicago are associated with net reductions in violent crime, but they have less of an impact on property crime” (Hartley, 2014). Most individuals within society would rather deal with property crime as opposed to dealing with homicides. Although the plan to reduce crime through demolishing public housing and concentrated poverty appears to be an outstanding idea, many people feel as though the criminals or criminal activity will simply relocate to another location. Studies show that the “relocated households are more likely to be both the alleged perpetrators of crime and more likely to be the victims of crime than the average resident in the neighborhoods to which they move” (Hartley, 2014). The increase in some areas of criminal activity can be attributed to the fact that many of these individuals are more likely to be the victims of criminal activity placing them in a position to protect or defend themselves.
The purpose of the article is to illustrate the point that public housing demolition has reduced extreme concentrations of poverty in the city of Chicago. As a result of reducing the extreme concentrations of poverty criminal activity has also decreased in many ways. Such illustrations drive home the point that poverty is indeed connected to crime. Due to the fact that individuals within the city of Chicago recognized this fact they attempted to reduce crime by destroying concentrated poverty.
Daniel Harley utilized several sources, reports, and statistics to illustrate the aforementioned points. According to (Hartley, 2014) the Chicago housing authority, annual reports, detailed research, along with the author’s personal calculations validated the points made within the article. Specifically the studies of Gautreaux, MTO, and the CHAC lottery show a connection between neighborhood poverty and the overall crime rate (Hartley, 2014). Gautreaux was a lawsuit involving Dorothy Gautreaux in which...