July 21, 2014
Instructor Forest Sun
Programming Fundamentals Paper
There have been dramatic changes to information technology systems over the past couple of decades. For example, the hardware and the software that is installed for mobile phones have advanced tremendously. In earlier times, you would have to push physical buttons on the phone then press the send button to make a call, later you had to type in a number and hit send and it would begin the phone call, but now you need to open a specific application on the phone to place the call. The differences between these methods of completing a call can be described as Procedural Programming, which is the ...view middle of the document...
In other words, in procedural programming a task is created and a set of subsequently dependent tasks are followed, meaning as you create one it will always be followed by another task that depends on the prior task.
Object-Oriented Programming, on the other hand, is centered on the object. Objects are created from abstract data types that encapsulate data and functions together. “An object is a software entity that contains both data and procedures. The data contained in an object is known as the object’s fields. An object’s fields are simply variables, arrays, or other data structures that are stored in the object. The procedures that an object performs are known as methods. An object’s methods are nothing more than modules or functions. The object is, conceptually, a self-contained unit that consists of data (fields) and procedures (methods)” (Gaddis, 2010). OOP can address the issue of code/data separation through encapsulation and data hiding. Encapsulation refers to the combining of data and code into a single object. Data hiding refers to an object’s ability to hide its data from code that is outside the object. Only the object’s methods may then directly access and make changes to the object’s data. An object typically hides its data, but allows outside code to access its methods.
The key difference between OOP and Procedural Programming is that the focus of Procedural Programming is to break down the programming task into a collection of variables and subroutines while, the focus of OOP is to break down the programming task into...