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Probation System Essay

1788 words - 8 pages

Probation System
There are three theories or models of criminal justice. The first one is the retributive theory while the second is the rehabilitate theory and the last is the restorative theory. The first basically concerns itself with the punishment of people by putting them in boot camps, in order to deter their ways. Such instills discipline and fear, which in turn reduces crime. The second one believes that working with these people change their ways to reduce crime, the U.S. Penal System: Restorative and Retributive Justice. The third aims to reintroduce and reincorporate the person back into the community after retribution or rehabilitation.
To begin, the first one is ...view middle of the document...

Next, background parole in America’s criminal system is one of today’s most hotly debated topics in the criminal 30 years that community corrections have become a substantial part of the correctional system. The procedure known as parole in the criminal justice system has been practiced in the United States since the late 1800’s when it was begun in reformatory in Elmire, New York. The ground work for probation was laid in 1830 with the use of release on recognizance. Probation began to emerge in 1841 with the volunteer efforts of John Augustus. He recommended to judges that certain offenders be released under his supervision.
In recent years, the push for alternatives to incarceration has, in large part, been in response to rapidly increasing prison populations in Canada and the United States. Legislators in Canada and the United States have passed legislation in recent years aimed at reducing or stabilizing prison populations. Canada and the United States have the highest rates of incarceration of all Western democratic countries, at 130 and 529 per 100,000 populations respectively. Prison and penitentiary populations are increasing rapidly, up to 12% and 22% in a five year span. Beginning in the 1950’s national attention was focused on the development of alternative, community based correctional serviced. In the early stages of the community corrections movement, local institutions, residential centers, group homes and specialized probation services were promoted as alternatives to incarceration. In the late 1960’s a second phase of community corrections movement stimulated and explosion of diversion programs that were promoted as alternatives to the criminal justice system altogether.
Community corrections offer viable alternatives to incarceration for offenders at various stages of the criminal justice process. The alternatives which may be available to offenders include, bail supervision programs, alternative measure programs, restitution programs, fine option programs, community service order, probation, intensive supervision probation, conditional sentence of imprisonment, attendance center programs, electronic monitoring, community based center, temporary absence programs and parole. Its process provides for early conditional release from prison for convicted felons, after part of their prison sentence has been served, and they are found to be eligible for parole based on factors such as, conduct while incarcerated, rehabilitative efforts and progress, type of offense, and remorse for their crime. Its use has been expanded to many states, and today has become the primary way by which offenders are released from prisons and correctional institutions. Parole is a supervised release of prisoners before they have completed their entire sentence. When on parole the parolee has to comply with the rules set forward for them or they will end up going back to jail for violating their parole. Some of the rules they have to...

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