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Population Policy Of Mongolia And China

4495 words - 18 pages

Contents

1.Population policy of Mongolia…………………………………4
1.1. History and background……………………………………………………4-6
1.2. Population policy:…………………………………………………………..6-7
1.2.1.One. Population growth and health:………………………………………8-9
1.2.2.Two . Food and housing: …………………………………………………9
1.2.3.Three. Education and employment: ………………………………………9
1.2.4.Four. Distribution and migration: ………………………………………...10
1.2.5.Five. Registration, information and research: …………………………….11
1.2.6.Six. Link between population and sustainable development; …………….11
1.2.7.Seven. Status of family and social groups:………………………………..11
1.2.8. Eight. Administration of population policies and resources: …………….11-12

2. Population ...view middle of the document...

6 square km. The 68 % of the total populations are the young people under the age 35. The average life expectancy is over 65.
A larger population has been a long-standing goal of the government, which provided a series of incentives to encourage large families. Government takes population policy and creates favorable conditions for spacing birth in the interest of child and maternal health shall be viewed as the major factor in ensuring of population growth.
It is estimated that the percentage of and the number of children in the population will decrease while the population of working age will increase. Also the number of the elderly is expected to gradually increase.
According to rough estimates, Mongolian population will increase to reach 3.4 million in 2019 and the percentage of children of the age below 14 will decline to 27 percent. This also indicates that the population of working age will rise to 10 percent.
1.1. History and background
Mongolia began its rocky journey from Soviet socialism toward democracy and a free-market economy.“After 70 years of socialist development, Mongolians found their life-world turned upside down in 1991,” said Thomas Spoorenberg, a demographer with the United Nations who specializes in Mongolia.
“When such large-scale changes take place and life is uncertain, people are wary of having many children. Mongolia followed that pattern.”
The numbers speak for themselves. By the time 2005 rolled around, Mongolaia's fertility rate crashed to an all-time Mongolian low of 1.95 in 2005, while the world average hovered around 2.3.
But since then — largely thanks to the government upping its incentives in 2006 — the rate has started to rise. Mongolia's National statistics office reported an overall fertility rate of 2.69 children per woman in 2009. (World average for the period 2005 to 2010 is 2.5.).Mongolia's always been a bit population-obsessed.
Like many former socialist countries, especially ones where labor is scarce and winters severe, population was a constant focal point. During the years when Mongolia got assistance from the USSR, the country spared no efforts to bolster population growth.
During a period of Sino-Soviet friction in the 1960s, resident Chinese workers were expelled from Mongolia, which caused a labor crisis. Among their crimes, as per Mongolian law, was the possession and distribution of condoms and contraceptives. Preventing procreation was a criminal offense.
Over the years Mongolia's population policy became the mirror image of neighboring China, with its "one-child" rule. In fact, Mongolia told its citizens that “childbearing was the patriotic duty of every Mongolian woman.”
So much so that the legitimacy of the off spring was immaterial. By the late '80s, nearly 20 percent of Mongolia’s children were born out of wedlock. A Mongolian newspaper reported in March 1989 that 45,000 of the 870,000 children aged 15 and younger were born out of wedlock.
Working Mongolian women were...

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