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Piaget Theory Essay

1221 words - 5 pages

Classical Conditioning: Association of Interest Led to Conditioning
Sandra Davis
PSY 390
May 21, 2012
Brian Newbury

Classical Conditioning: Association of Interest Led to Conditioning
Classical conditioning, synonymous with Pavlovian and respondent conditioning, is one of two types of learning (the other type of learning is operant conditioning) that provide a systematic approach to understanding human and nonhuman behavior and the potentiality of changing behavior. Learning significantly affects our way of living, functioning, and survival. Learning's predictability qualities assist in directing behavior. Kowalski & Westen (2009) affirm, "Learning is essentially about ...view middle of the document...

Therefore, a conditioned response (CR) is a learned response; by pairing the US (the food) with the sound of the bell (neutral stimulus) (NS), the bell became the conditioned stimulus (CS)-a stimulus which through learning came to evoke a conditioned response (salivation) (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 167). "In classical conditioning, the US is called reinforcement because the entire conditioning procedure depends on it" (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 7). This mechanical approach illustrates the manner in which changes in human behavior occurs.
Classical conditioning overwhelmingly influences behavior in respect to emotional responses. One of the most published displays of such is the experiment conducted by John Watson and his companion Rosalie Rayner in 1920. A small boy named Albert became the subject of the research study that involved pairing a number of objects with a loud, startling noise to produce fear. After several attempts a white rat was successfully paired with the loud noise eliciting exasperating fear in Lil Albert; successful in that upon the sight of the white rat, Albert became frightened (Kowalski & Westen, 2009, p. 160).
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
A CR is contingent upon an US, this account for referencing the US as a reinforcer. In the absence of the US, a CS would never exist; therefore, negating elicitation of a CR. The reversal of conditioning is extinction. After a CR's development, upon repeatedly presenting the CS without pairing it with the US, the CR inevitably wanes. In the case of Pavlov's dogs, after the dogs associated the bell (CS) with food (US), when food no longer appeared with the sound of the bell, the dogs discontinued the salivation (CR). Olson & Hergenhahn (2009) declare, "When the CS no longer elicits a CR, experimental extinction is said to have occurred" (p. 167). Extinction adds validity to the necessity of the US in the conditioning procedure; presentation of the CS without the reinforcement of the US results in extinction. Following extinction, the renewal of the presentation of the CS to the organism again elicits the CR. The CR is "spontaneously recovered", even in the absence of the pairing of CS +US. Spontaneous recovery only lasts briefly, if renewed pairing of CS + US (Kowalski & Westen, 2009, p. 163) does not follow it.
Applying Classical Conditioning to Scenario
My goddaughter, Jada is very mature for her18 months here on earth. I noticed that she took a keen interest in bathroom activities. I also noticed that she tremendously disliked the feel of a soiled pamper on her person. Since she and I spend a lot of time together, we communicate and understand each other very well. We are in the beginning stages of potty training. When it is time for her nature call, she goes off to herself. We established the cueing sounds for her Elimination Communication: pee-pee for urinating and boo-boo for bowel movement. Jada learned very easily to...

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