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Physics Practical Report: Connecting Batteries And Resistors In Parallel And Series

1809 words - 8 pages

The Combination of Cells and Resistors in a Circuit

Name: Emmanuel BALOME
ID Number: 20140385
Group Number: A2
Lab Partners:
* Christopher BAGME
* Leandra BANIYAMAI
* Amex BATEME
* Kingston BOB
* Natalie BROWN

Abstract

Batteries and resistors can be connected in both series and parallel circuits where the current and voltage running through them can be altered. Batteries connected in series give off large amounts of electromotive force while the reverse happens when connected in parallel. Resistors connected in series are added individually while an inverse summation results while connected in parallel. These are the effects that will be closely studied in ...view middle of the document...

Theoretical Background

When moving along circuits electrons face different forms of resistance particularly peculiar to the distinct materials they are comprised of and the way they are wired such as in series or parallel, the total voltage (V), current (I) and resistance (R) through a series can be calculated as follows:
* VT=V1+V2+V3+Vn
VT=V1+V2+V3+Vn
Voltage :

* Current:
I1=I2=I3=I4=In
I1=I2=I3=I4=In

1

1

* Resistance:
2

2

RT=R1+R2+R3+Rn
RT=R1+R2+R3+Rn

While in a parallel circuit the total voltage, current and resistance can be calculated as shown below:
* VT=V1=V2=V3=Vn
VT=V1=V2=V3=Vn
Voltage:

* Current:
IT=I1+I2+I3+In
IT=I1+I2+I3+In

* Resistance:
1RT=1R1+1R2+1R3+1Rn
1RT=1R1+1R2+1R3+1Rn

Electromotive force (εmf) is not a force but it is simply the potential needed to drive electrons around a circuit when there is no current. The readings on the shells of batteries indicate the electromotive force, but once they are used in closed circuits they come under the stress of internal resistance (r) and terminal resistance (R), so the equation relating all of this is shown below:
εmf=internal voltage+terminal voltage
εmf=internal voltage+terminal voltage

εmf=Ir+IR
εmf=Ir+IR

But as for the case of this practical the εmf measured was initially not connected to a circuit, there were some variances in the εmf when the batteries were connected in series and parallel:
* ET=E1+E2+E3+En
ET=E1+E2+E3+En
Electromotive force of the batteries in series

* ET=E1=E2=E3=En
ET=E1=E2=E3=En
Electromotive force of the batteries in parallel

A great German scientist in the 19th Century pooled the three quantities - voltage (V), current (I) and resistance (R) - in electricity together in a simple algebraic statement:

V=IR

The wirings of parallel and series present a more diverse approach that obtains unique results that are imperative to the day to day basis of electronics.

Experimental Design and Procedure

The apparatuses that were used are:
* Two dry cells (1.5V each)
* A multimeter
* Two resistors
* Five circuit wires

Methodology:
1. Students were asked to design four circuits that had a combination of dry cells in series and parallel and a combination of resistors in series and parallel.
2. After being approved by tutors on standby the students constructed the four circuits by connecting the components each at a time using the wires because the circuit board was assigned only one to a group.
3. At the first stage the students went on to measure the εmfof the dry cells connected in series and then parallel using the multimeter.
4. After that, they measured the voltage, current and resistance of the two resistors that were connected to the two dry cells in series and then parallel. (Note: the two dry cells were connected to in...

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