Study Guide: Lesson 4
A Little Logic
Logic is the primary tool or methodology in studying philosophy. Philosophy is about analyzing and constructing arguments and a good understanding of the basics of logical reasoning is essential in performing that task. The next 3 lessons will focus on logic and analyzing arguments. In this lesson, you will first be introduced to the laws of logic. These are the first principles for all reasoning. We will then discuss the specialized terminology we use in logic. Finally, we will examine 2 major kinds of logical reasoning: deductive and inductive. We will consider different forms of arguments under each and discuss how to evaluate these arguments. Take note that a large part of this lesson is about learning the terminology for logic.
Read and take notes from Prelude to Philosophy, chapter 5: “A Little Logic.” As you read, ...view middle of the document...
* Explain the relationship between truth value of the propositions with the validity/strength of the argument.
* Know the point about agreeing with the conclusion of an argument and it being a good argument.
* Know the kind of conclusion arrived at by a valid deductive argument.
* Note the difference in terminology between the laws of logic and the rules of valid inference.
* Explain the categorical syllogism (you did not need to memorize the chart nor the 6 rules of valid inference).
* Explain the disjunctive syllogism and know the fallacy.
* Explain what a hypothetical proposition is doing and what it is not doing.
* Explain the hypothetical syllogism and know the two fallacies.
* Contrast induction with deduction.
* How are inductive arguments evaluated in comparison to deductive arguments and what makes an argument stronger or weaker?
* Explain the 6 forms of inductive arguments.
* Know the idea of relevant similarity concerning analogies.
View the Presentation: “Deductive and Inductive Arguments” as it is a good summary of some of the reading in this module/week.
Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts:
* Laws of Logic * Law of Non-Contradiction * Law of Excluded Middle * Self-Evident * Argument * Proposition * Premises * Conclusion * Inference * Non-Sequitur * Valid/Invalid * Strong/Weak * Truth Value * Sound * Cogent * Deduction * Valid Deductive Argument * Syllogism * Rules of Valid Inference * Categorical Syllogism | * Categorical Proposition * Disjunctive Syllogism * Disjunctive Proposition * Alternant * Fallacy of Affirming the Alternant * Hypothetical Syllogism: Pure and Mixed * Hypothetical Proposition * Antecedent * Consequent * Modus Ponens * Modus Tollens * Fallacy of Denying the Antecedent * Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent * Induction * Generalization * Analogy * Probability Calculus * Statistical Reasoning * Causal Inference * Formal Fallacy |