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Pg Mm Essay

717 words - 3 pages



Answer all parts of the chosen questions. All questions are for 22 marks.

1. (a) Discuss the design of a pharmacogenomic study, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects, to evaluate the variability in response to warfarin in populations with different ancestries. [ 11 marks ]

(b) Describe 2 different enzymes affecting pharmacokinetic factors and drug response. Include drug substrates, disease(s) implicated, their genetic variations and explain how the knowledge of genotype/phenotype relationship could be useful in clinical practice.
[ 11 marks ]

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[ 11 marks ]

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how the variability of the expression of genes between people leads to differences in susceptibility to disease and responses to medicines.

b) What are the ethical issues surrounding the use of pharmacogenomic information in clinical medicine. Focus on the following stakeholders:
(i) the patient (and their family)
(ii) the medical practitioner
(iii) the health board paying for the treatment
(iv) the pharmaceutical/ biotechnology industry
(v) health insurance companies [ 11 marks ]

5. (a) Describe how the polymorphisms in CYP450 genes can affect drug response, adverse effects and individual treatment. Give two examples. [ 11 marks ]

(b) Giving a specific example, describe the identification of genetic markers for a drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction (‘off-target’...

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