This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Essay

4135 words - 17 pages

Executive Summary
The world is more concerned about organizations with high rate in their performance, effectiveness, employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, career development and etc. Thus, organizations want employees to go behind their day-to-day job duties and exceed expectations. Literatures suggest that these extra-voluntary behaviors, called organizational citizenship behaviors, are positively related to the indicators of organizational effectiveness. Katz and Kahn (1978) mentioned that organizational citizenship behaviors can be extremely valuable to organizations and can contribute to enhance better performance as well as competitive advantage (Jahangir & Akbar ...view middle of the document...

By discretionary, we mean that the behavior is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description, that is, the clearly specifiable terms of the person’s employment contract with the organization; the behavior is rather a matter of personal choice, such that its omission is not generally understood as punishable.” Chien (2001) stated that effective planed OCBs describes how the organizations can improve employees’ willingness to go behind the expectations and their job description. In simple words, OCBs is similar to the old concept of voluntary actions regardless of formal rewards in return.
Dyne (1990) proposed a broader definition for OCBs as “extra-role behaviors (ERB)”; "behavior is intended to benefit the organization, which is discretionary and goes beyond existing role expectations." Organizational citizenship, thus, is functional, extra-role, pro-social organizational behaviors directed at individual, groups as well as organization. These behaviors are not prescribed by the organization and there is neither reward nor punishment in return.” OCBs do not provide activity clarification as much as one’s “job role” does. All the proposed concepts of OCBs agree that these behaviors can be distinguished from defined tasks; they are more voluntary and spontaneous compare to any core job; and they have more effect on organizational, social, and psychological environment (Farh LJ, Zhong BC, Organ WD 2004).
To describe OCBs, Katz and Kahn (1966) argued that organizational functioning highly depends on employee’s “supra- role” citizenship behaviors; extra- voluntary behaviors that are under employees’ control and cannot be prescribed or predetermined in advance; for example helping colleagues with their jobs, accepting temporary changes without complaining, or caring to keep the workplace clean. Supervisors value such behaviors because they cannot ask or require for that; instead employee, itself, chooses to behave in that way. (Podsakoff PM et al. 2000).
Why so much focus on going beyond the call of duty, you may ask. According to Cilla (2011) there have been over 650 studies on the subject since it was defined by Organ (1988) which raises the question; why? As the time passed, managers got more concern of the impact of citizenship behaviors on different dimensions, including human recourse management and leadership management, to create organizational effectiveness. Managers also value OCB because it creates cooperation in a work environment that helps to reduce the amount of time a manager spends on an issue and enables focusing on other opportunities for improving organizational Performances.
The definitions did not end there; sometime in 1997, Organ had dropped another definition; “performance that supports the social and psychological environment in which task performance takes place.” He waited till 2006 to explain why it had become a psychological issue with a reminder to heed the original definition which made it...

Other assignments on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

Ethical Stewardship Essay

1747 words - 7 pages work environment which promotes the internalization of social values, citizenship behaviors, and cooperation. However, not everyone agrees with the tenets of organizational social responsibility. In fact, some may argue that it is bad for the economic growth of a company. American economist and statistician Milton Friedman had a different school of thought. Interestingly, he supported capitalism and the free market with little government

Hrob Paper

3283 words - 14 pages HROB 2100 Selecting, Retaining, and Motivating Employees Within the Workplace The topic of human resource and understanding organizational behaviors has been becoming more and more relevant, important, and crucial to the underlying success of a business. That is why more and more businesses today are adapting and implementing the practice of HR programs and organizational behaviors. Expanding on the thought of HR programs and

Management 310 Study Guide Test 1

4581 words - 19 pages determine whether the resulting increases in satisfaction are temporary or long lasting. Organizational Citizenship Behavior Behavior that is not required but is necessary for organization survival and effectiveness Spreading goodwill, positive contributions, etc Organizational commitment Affective commitment: exists when employees are happy to be members of an organization, believe in and feel good about the organization and what it


7204 words - 29 pages necessary condition for doing well. Board of Directors • Shri Anil D. Ambani - Chairman • Prof. J Ramachandran • Shri S.P. Talwar • Shri Deepak Shourie • Shri A.K.Purwar ORGANIZATIONAL SET UP |CHAIRMAN | PRESIDENT PRESIDENT PRESIDENT (PRESONAL BUSINESS) (ENTERPRISES BUSINESS) (HOME BUSINESS) SENIOUR V.P V.P GM DGM AGM SENIOUR MANAGER

Examining The Ways Immigrants From Former Ussr Experience And Cope With Workplace Aggression Qualitative Study

6576 words - 27 pages , increases the chance of work-related injuries and illness (Okechukwu et al, 2011), affects organizational commitment, and causes financial loss for the organization (Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2002). The employee suffers the consequence of workplace aggression as well. Unhealthy atmosphere within the company is reflects in financial terms: decreased productivity, increased turnover, the team becomes less cohesive are among numerous possible

Wgu Abc2 Exam

5844 words - 24 pages ABC1-Set1 | Marks: 86 | Number of Questions: 86 | ABC1 | ABC1-Set1 |   | 1. Item code: 964.1.1-01.1One employee in a company always seems willing to help other employees with aspects of their own jobs. This employee is a positive force and a "team player" within the organization. Which dimension of organizational citizenship behavior does this employee demonstrate? Choose 1 answer   a) | Altruism | b) | Courtesy | c

Managing In A Borderless World

7068 words - 29 pages and sell in markets all over the world. But when push comes to shove, their field of vision is dominated by homecountry customers and the organizational units that serve them. Everyone-and everything-else is simply part of "the rest of the world." This nearsightedness is not intentional. No responsible manager purposefully devises or imple152 ments an astigmatic strategy. But by the same token, too few managers consciously try to set plans

Customer Stisfaction

8502 words - 35 pages marketing and the ________ side. a. creative b. selling c. management d. forecasting e. behavior Answer: a Page: 4 Level of difficulty: Easy 3. The most formal definition of marketing is ________. a. meeting needs profitably b. identifying and meeting human and social needs c. the 4Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion) d. an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and


714 words - 3 pages The first ethical issue presented in the ethics game simulation was whether to warn consumers about the contaminated product and what information to provide consumers about the contaminant. The second ethical issue was whether to sell a product that does not meet U.S. safety requirements in a foreign market that has lower safety restrictions. G-BioSport was not required to meet prior approval from the Federal Drug Administration before they

Economy Effect Of Marijuana

277 words - 2 pages Modern American History by Alan Renga 2nd Mid Term! You will be given 3 Short Essay questions and 20 Multiple Choice questions deriving from this list! 80 points total! The 1920s Warren Harding then Calvin Coolidge Tea Pot Dome 1st Red Scare Immigration Restriction, Sacco and Vanzetti Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey, KKK Prosperity, advertising Prohibition, Al Capone Flappers, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey

The Vc Shakeout

2033 words - 9 pages ECONOMY 26 Luring a big firm to town is not the secret to job growth DEFEND YOUR RESEARCH 30 Are morning people wired for success? VISION STATEMENT 32 The social web’s east-west divide COLUMN 38 Warren Bennis looks back on his surprising path to fame New Thinking, Research in Progress New Thinking, Research in Progress FIRST The VC Shakeout Venture capital hasn’t worked for a decade and must be radically

Similar Documents

Mppo Essay

3738 words - 15 pages representing the organization in a positive way when out in public, away from the office, and away from work. Figure 3. Facets of citizenship behaviour Counterproductive behaviors are employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment. Various categories of this facet are as follows - * Property deviance refers to behaviors that harm the organization’s assets and possessions. * Production deviance is also

Organizational Behaviours Essay

1020 words - 5 pages  work more effectively. Specifically, OB focuses on how to improve productivity,  reduce absenteeism and turnover, and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction  Unit   3:  Foundation of Organization behavior  This unit deals with organizational Behavior which emphasizes on intellectual capital as represented by  the sum total of knowledge, expertise, and dedication of an organization’s workforce  Unit   4:Learning  This unit deals

Research Proposal Essay

4383 words - 18 pages support it. Through this paper we will understand cultures in terms of expected behaviors and norms that can help explain why some organizational units (or the entire organization) exhibit dysfunctional behaviors that are counter to the organization’s expressed values or mission, and which hamper efficiency and effectiveness. The study also suggests that support in the form of training, communication, rewards and resources must be provided

Bus 520 Essay

993 words - 4 pages Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct The __________ component of an attitude is a specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedents, while the __________ component is an intention to behave in a certain way based on your specific feelings or attitudes. Answer Selected Answer: affective; behavioral Correct Answer: affective; behavioral Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct The flip side of organizational citizenship