Kathmandu UNiversity school of management |
Term Paper on Application of Reinforcement TheoryIn Educational Setting |
Submitted to: Ms. Jyoti Regmi Adhikary |
Course Instructor (Organizational Behavior) |
Kathmandu University School of Management |
Submitted by: Neha Jatiya, BBA 5th Semester, Roll no: 11739 |
Reinforcement theory has been a basis for understanding the behavioral implication of human beings for a long period of time. However, whether or not the application of these concepts in educational sector ...view middle of the document...
5.1 Research on reinforcement theory 6-7
5.2 Classroom management to promote educational outcome 7
5. Discussion and Implications
5.1 Implications of literature review and practical application 8
6. Conclusion 9
7. References 10
Reinforcement is an event that increases behavior. In the classroom, reinforcement occurs as teachers manage the environmental events that follow students' desired ways of behaving so to increase the strength and future likelihood of that behavior.
Reinforcement comes in two types—positive and negative. Positive reinforcement occurs when desired behavior is strengthened by the presentation of a contingent stimulus. The attractive, behavior-increasing, contingent stimulus used during positive reinforcement is referred to as a positive reinforcer. A positive reinforcer is defined as any environmental event that, when given in response to the behavior, increases the strength and frequency of that behavior. Some commonly used positive reinforcers in the classroom are praise, attention, tokens, and stickers.
Negative reinforcement occurs when desired behavior is strengthened by the removal of a contingent stimulus. The aversive, behavior-increasing, contingent stimulus that is removed during negative reinforcement is referred to as a negative reinforcer. A negative reinforcer is defined as any environmental event that, when taken away in response to the behavior, increases the strength and frequency of that behavior.
(Table 1 Source: GGS INFORMATION SERVICES. CENGAGE LEARNING, GALE)
Table 1 provides a sample of reinforcers commonly used in K-12 classrooms. The left side of the table lists a variety of positive reinforcers that teachers give to strengthen students' behavior, while the right side of the table lists a variety of negative reinforcers that teachers take away to strengthen students' behavior.
What is common to all positive reinforcers in the list is the idea that after the student engages in a particular behavior, he or she receives an attractive consequence for doing so. That is, when the student turns in her homework, the teacher then places a sticker on the paper. The sticker is given after the homework has been handed in and with the intention of strengthening the likelihood that future homework assignments will be forthcoming.
What is common to all negative reinforcers in the list is the idea that when the student engages in a particular behavior, he or she gets a break from an unattractive or aversive consequence for doing so. That is, when the student turns in her homework, the teacher then exempts the student from an arduous assignment of long division problems. The arduous...