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Organisational Structure Essay

448 words - 2 pages

The Individual
Some psychological charactaristics

Figure 3.1

Sources of personality

Figure 3.2

Stability of personality characteristics

Source: adapted from Mischel 1977

Idiographic Personality Theory: the Psychodynamic Perspective

Figure 3.3

Freud’s conceptualisation of the structure of personality

Figure 3.6

Hierarchical arrangement of bipolar constructs

Trait Theory

Figure 3.7

Cattell’s 16 personality factors

Trait Theory (Continued)

Figure 3.7

Cattell’s 16 personality factors (Continued)

Jung’s Type Theory

Figure 3.8

Jung’s personality types

Eysenck’s Type Theory

Figure 3.9

‘Eysenck’s personality types’

Source: Eysenck, HJ (1965) Fact and Fiction in Psychology (pub Penguin Books Ltd), copyright © HJ Eysenck 1965

A Definition of ...view middle of the document...

10

An impossible shape

Figure 4.11

Analysis by synthesis (adapted from Neisser 1976)

A Definition of Stereotyping
Attributing to a person qualities or characteristics that are assumed to be typical of members of a particular category of people, e.g. age, gender, etc.

A Definition of the Halo Effect
The assumption that because a person has a certain trait, he/she automatically has other (associated) traits

Figure 4.12

Model of self-fulfilling prophecy effect

Figure I1

Interactions between individual characteristics

The psychological contract – possible expectations of employees and employers
Table 5.3

A Definition of Attitudes
A mental and neural state of readiness, organised through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related (Allport 1954a, p 45)

Constructs Associated with Attitudes
• Beliefs (Intentional objects)

• Values

Components of Attitudes
• Cognitive component

• Affective component
• Behavioural component

Functions of Attitudes
• Adjustment function • Ego-defensive function

• Value-expressive function
• Knowledge function

Attitudes and Behaviour

Figure 5.1

The theory of planned behaviour

Source: adapted from Ajzen 1988

A Definition of Emotions
An affective experience that unfolds over a short period of time
(Lazarus 1991)

Table 5.2

Moods compared to emotions

What is an emotion?

1. Emotions as feelings
2. Emotions as Judgements (Propositional Attitudes)

1. Emotions as Active elements in decision-making etc.
2. Emotions as ”passions”, response-functions

Emotions and Rationality

A polar distinction: • Emotions are irrational • Pure rationality is cold (free of emotion)

2 alternative views:

Emotions are rational (Ronald de Sousa)
Emotions are the decisive part in rational decision-making (Antonio Damasio)

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