Data enters the system it gets converted into binary computer language. This data is sent through the network and encapsulated into packets. These packets have headers and trailers which indicate the direction of travel. Therefore the packets carry the information to and from destination. In addition this includes a number place in other words it keeps its place in the order it was sent.
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The packets are not limited to just one router sometimes these packets will travel through multiple routers in multiple topologies. This can include Regional Networks, Long-Haul Networks, and Ocean Networks. The network and each router will determine which direction of travel is best path for the packet. As things change within the network something are slower than others it learns from it and makes changes for better performance. With this method the packets will more than likely arrive out of order. Depending if you use TCP or UDP, you will get an acknowledgement of the receipt of each packet to the sending system. The sending system will resend any lost information.
When the all the packets get to the destination, they get put back in order based on the header and trailer information. Than the data goes the reverse order of encapsulation to be read at the server or computer. This all happens usually at the milliseconds, in reference to time taken. The server would send information back along similar lines except that the data could take a different route based on the routers routing table at the time of transmission.