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No Information Yet Essay

1299 words - 6 pages

PIGS. España, Grecia, Italia y Portugal
Crisis económica, austeridad, deuda, Pacto de Estabilidad y
Crecimiento

Los países periféricos
¿Qué ha llevado a los PIGS a la actual crisis económica? Los tipos de interés disminuyeron con la
entrada de éstos en la eurozona para homologarse a las condiciones existentes en el área: entre 2000
y 2007, el tipo de interés real promedio fue de 2,7% en los países centrales de la eurozona y de 1,2%
en los países del Sur. Junto al incremento de acceso al crédito de forma masiva era difícilmente
sostenible, lo que produjo claramente una burbuja inmobiliaria financiada, al igual que sucedió en
otros países como en el caso de EE.UU.
Una vez estalla la crisis ...view middle of the document...

Análisis de los PIGS
España:
El origen de la crisis en España se encuentra en la burbuja inmobiliaria principalmente. Entre 1997 y
2006, el precio de la vivienda había aumentado un 150%. Se concedían créditos para acceder a la
compra de inmuebles de forma indiscriminada sin hacer una valoración real de la capacidad de
solvencia y endeudamiento sostenible de las familias, como sucedió en EE.UU.
Porcentaje de deuda total por tipo de tenedor (finales de 2009)1
España

Portugal

Grecia

Administraciones públicas

13%

15%

42%

Entidades financieras

31%

30%

17%

Tenedor de deuda

1

Fuente: Tomado de Medialdea y Sanabria, 2012

Empresas no financieras

39%

31%

23%

Hogares

17%

23%

17%

Sector privado total

87%

84%

57%

En España, el endeudamiento privado se triplicó en menos de diez años al pasar de 100% del PIB a
200% del PIB entre 2001 y 2008. En 1997 suponía un 52% del ingreso real disponible y en 2005 llegó al
105%. En el 2006 una cuarta parte de la población estaba endeudada a más de 15 años2 .

A esto hay que añadirle el déficit público de
España (presión fiscal inadecuada,
competitividad de los precios no genera
riqueza social, no se reduce el paro y la
población joven en edad de trabajar no
accede al mercado laboral. De hecho, el FMI
estima que se mantendrá negativo hasta el
2020, con una predicción de -1,463%.
La balanza come​ (registro de las
rcial
importaciones y exportaciones de un país
cualquiera durante un período)​
también se
encuentra también en déficit, que en 2009 se
redujo el 5,37% hasta los 84.979,6 millones,
al subir las exportaciones el 3,9% y las importaciones el 0,9%3 .
Además, el crédito a empresas y particulares se estanca. Los bancos no conceden créditos a las
familias, que se han acostumbrado a un nivel de vida y tienen un nivel de deuda alto; ni a las
empresas, que dependen de un cierto margen de crédito para mantener su flujo de actividad y la ven
frenada por no poder hacer frente a pagos, y no recibir pagos de sus proveedores, que tampoco
reciben créditos. Es el caso de la construcción, que provoca el estallido de la burbuja inmobiliaria. En
octubre de 2007 el grupo inmobiliario Llanera presenta suspensión de pagos. Las entidades financieras
dedicadas al crédito hipotecario se ven gravemente afectadas puesto que se han concedido créditos
para la compra de inmuebles de forma desmesurada, en consecuencia, muchos bancos empiezan a
desahuciar a muchas unidades familiares, cuyos constituyentes han caído en el desempleo y no
pueden hacer frente al pago de la hipoteca.
En octubre de 2007 el grupo inmobiliario Llanera presenta suspensión de pagos. Las entidades
financieras dedicadas al crédito hipotecario se ven gravemente afectadas puesto que se han
concedido créditos para la compra de inmuebles de forma desmesurada, en consecuencia, muchos
bancos empiezan a desahuciar a muchas unidades familiares, cuyos constituyentes han caído en el
desempleo y no pueden hacer frente al...

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