Hierarchical star topology is where all computers are connected to a single, centrally located point. The central point is usually a hub of servers and switches located in the main equipment room. If there is a problem with the central hub then the network will not be able to work. It can bring the whole system down. By having everything centralize, it makes troubleshooting and reconfiguration simpler. It is usually a home networks that uses a hub or switch.
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The central cable is the backbone of the network. All of the workstations communicate with each other through the bus. The advantage to a bus topology is that it is easy to set up and is cost less than other topologies. It uses less cable due to the restriction of the length of cable. The disadvantages are the limit amount of devices to be connected. It is harder to troubleshoot when there is a problem. Maintenance will cost more in the long run.
Ring Topology is where all of the computers are connected together that it creates a closed loop. Each of the workstation can communicate with its neighbor by two other components. The data travels in one direction in the network. The advantage of ring topology is all of the traffic flows in one direction at high speed. Each computer will have equal access to resources. The disadvantages are that it can be slower than a star topology and if one computer goes down than the whole network can be affected. It can be more expensive than other topologies.