Nanotubes Essay

1604 words - 7 pages

In: Book Name
Editor: Editors Name, pp.

© 2008 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.


Y.H. Guu1, C.C. Mai2 and H. Hocheng3,*

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University
Miaoli 360, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Department of Numerical Control Technology, Intelligent Machinery Technology
Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research
Taichung Industrial Area, Taichung 407, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Carbon nanotubes possess ...view middle of the document...

The surface characteristics play an important role
in micro/nanofabrication as well as understanding the nature of workpiece. In recent years,
atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to measure the surface at the

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nanometer scale. AFM is also a powerful technique to conduct lithography on the substrates
acquiring the desired nanostructures. AFM can act as a nanomanipulator to pick up and
release nanoscale structures on surfaces. Carbon nanotubes show great potential for AFM
applications due to their smaller diameters than Si or metal tips result in a high resolution. The
high aspect ratios of carbon nanotubes are very suitable to observe a specimen with the
precipitous features and their physical and chemical robustness lead to a high abrasion
resistance. This work will review the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes
and the applications in EDM and AFM.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are composed of graphene sheet that is rolled up spirally into a
seamless cylinder with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 50 nm and lengths of many microns.
The graphite sheet was constructed by the carbon atoms with honeycomb structure. There are
two types of carbon nanotubes: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled
carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). SWNT is formed by rolling a grapheme sheet into a cylinder
which have one atom thick and with diameters ranging from 0.6 to a few nm. MWNTs are
made of a rolled-up stack of graphene sheets in concentric cylinders. MWNTs have diameters
ranging from a few nm to 50 nm. Electron diffraction analysis showed that the graphene
sheets had a helical arrangement relative to the tube axis [1-3]. In general, the SWNTs were
put together to form bundles. In a bundle, it is hexagonally arranged to form crystal-like
The carbon nanotubes (both MWCNTs and SWCNTs) possess extraordinary mechanical
combined with low density, unique electrical properties, and excellent thermal properties. The
carbon nanotubes are the candidate with great potential as an application in nanoscale devices
and can be widely used in electronic, mechanical, electromechanical, chemical and scanning
probe, powder mixed EDM (PMEDM), and materials for macroscopic composites [1-2]. A
number of reviews on the applications of CNTs in electronic and optoelectronic [3], energy
storage devices [4], nano electro mechanical system (NEMS), sensors [5], reinforced polymer
[6], field emission and lighting [7], and biological [8]. Mechanical properties including
excellent tensile strength and high Young’s modulus and extreme flexibility with elastic
buckling without occurring catastrophic failure under large loads hence it is a promising
material for AFM tips applications.
In this review article, the authors will focus on the major research of the properties of
carbon nanotube and to review the emerging applications of carbon nanotubes...

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