Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper on how you can prepare for academic success at the graduate level. Include the following:
260 WORDS PER PART
* Identify characteristics of graduate writing and explain how writing at the graduate level differs from other forms of writing.
* Outline the elements of effective written communication.
A. Sender : the person who send the massage
- Message : the massage that send from the sender
- Channel : the transmission line connect between sender and receiver
- Receiver : the person who receive the massage through the channel
* Describe plagiarism and steps to avoid it.
B. plagiarism is defined as “the deliberate or reckless ...view middle of the document...
Building on their ideas and experiences, we create our own. When you put your ideas on paper, your instructors want to distinguish between the building block ideas borrowed from other people and your own newly reasoned perspectives or conclusions. You make these distinctions in a written paper by citing the sources for your building block ideas. Providing appropriate citations will also help readers who are interested in your topic find additional, related material to read—in this way, they will be able to build on the work you have done to find sources.
Think of it this way: in the vast majority of assignments you’ll get in college, your instructors will ask you to read something (think of this material as the building blocks) and then write a paper in which you analyze one or more aspects of what you have read (think of this as the new structure you build). Essentially, your instructors are asking you to do three things:
* Show that you have a clear understanding of the material you’ve read.
* Refer to your sources to support the ideas you have developed.
* Distinguish your analysis of what you’ve read from the authors’ analyses.
When you cite a source, you are using an expert’s ideas as proof or evidence of a new idea that you are trying to communicate to the reader.
What about “common knowledge”?
In every professional field, experts consider some ideas “common knowledge,” but remember that you’re not a professional (yet). In fact, you’re just learning about those concepts in the course you’re taking, so the material you are reading may not yet be “common knowledge” to you. In order to decide if the material you want to use in your paper constitutes “common knowledge,” you may find it helpful to ask yourself the following questions:
* Did I know this information before I took this course?
* Did this information/idea come from my own brain?
If you answer “no” to either or both of these questions, then the information is not “common knowledge” to you. In these cases, you need to cite your source(s) and indicate where you first learned this bit of what may be “common knowledge” in the field.
What about paraphrasing?
Paraphrasing means taking another person’s ideas and putting those ideas in your own words. Paraphrasing does NOT mean changing a word or two in someone else’s sentence, changing the sentence structure while maintaining the original words, or changing a few words to synonyms. If you are tempted to rearrange a sentence in any of these ways, you are writing too close to the original. That’s plagiarizing, not paraphrasing.
Paraphrasing is a fine way to use another person’s ideas to support your argument as long as you attribute the material to the author and cite the source in the text at the end of the sentence. In order to make sure you are paraphrasing in the first place, take notes from your reading with the book closed. Doing so will make it easier to put the ideas in your own words. When you are unsure...